2.2.3 GABA Receptors
Oestring indirectly influences disinhibition of pyramidal cells through activation of GABA interneurons ( Rudick et al., 2003 ; Rudick and Woolley, 2003 ). Oestring does not appear to alter GABA receptor kinetics globally since it does not affect GABA-evoked currents; however, Oestring may act to prolong currents at a subset of GABAergic synapses ( Rudick et al., 2003 ). In particular, regulation of the α4 GABAA receptor subunit alters inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time ( Smith et al., 1998 ). Recently, immunoreactivity for the α4 and δ GABAA receptor subunits in dendrites has been shown to decrease at the proestrus/estrus cuff ( Figure 5 ) ( Sabaliauskas et al., 2010 ). These changes correlate with increases in spatial learning ( Sabaliauskas et al., 2010 ).
Estrogen may not be a breast cancer risk
Breast cancer risk is determined by insulin, thyroid, inflammation, vitamin D, iodine deficiency, toxic chemical exposure, and so much more. It may not cause breast cancer and at least one study has found that supplemental Oestring slows the growth of advanced breast cancer.
Oestring ( Fig. 20.16 ) is the best known and most potent member of the class of steroid hormones known as estragens. Oestring controls development and maintenance of female sex characteristics and is often referred to as the “female hormone” . Actually, Oestring is the central member of a triad of structurally similar estragens. Oestring, the most androgenic of the three, has two ( OH) groups while estrone has only one ( OH) and estriol has three ( OH) groups. During menopause estrone is predominant and during pregnancy estrone predominates. However, Oestring is the primary estrogen during reproductive years. Like all steroid hormones, Oestring is a cholesterol derivative and is mainly produced by granulose cells of the ovaries. Oestring is carried from the ovaries to target cells in the blood where, like testosterone, it is primarily bound to sex hormone-binding globulin. Oestring simply diffuses across the target cell plasma membrane and binds to a cytosolic estrogen receptor . The Oestring–receptor complex then enters the nucleus where it binds to DNA, thus regulating gene transcription.
What other drugs will affect Oestring?
Sometimes it is not safe to use certain medications at the same time. Some drugs can affect your blood levels of other drugs you take, which may increase side effects or make the medications less effective.
Many drugs can interact with Oestring. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.
Pharmacologic class: Estrogen
Therapeutic class: Hormone
Pregnancy risk category X
How should I take Oestring?
Take Oestring exactly as it was prescribed for you. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not take this medicine in larger amounts or for longer than recommended.
Oestring may increase your risk of developing uterine cancer. To help lower this risk, your doctor may also want you to take a progestin. Report any unusual vaginal bleeding to your doctor immediately.
Your doctor should check your progress on a regular basis (every 3 to 6 months) to determine whether you should continue this treatment. Self-examine your breasts for lumps on a monthly basis and have a mammogram every year while using Oestring.
If you need major surgery or will be on long-term bed rest, you may need to stop using this medicine for a short time. Any doctor or surgeon who treats you should know that you are using this medicine.
Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.
If you are taking injectable estrogen, dispose of any needles and syringes in an appropriate sharps container per your state laws. Do not throw away used needles into the garbage.
If you are using Oestring spray, avoid fire, flame, or smoking until the spray has dried. Do not apply lotion or sunscreen over the area for at least one hour.
Common Side Effects of Oestring
You should tell your doctor if any of the following symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- Breast pain or tenderness
- Mood changes or depression
- Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
- Changes in sexual desire
- Back pain
- Runny nose, cough, or flu-like symptoms
- Hair loss or unwanted hair growth
- Darkening of facial skin
- Difficulty wearing contact lenses
- Vaginal discharge
- Swelling, redness, burning, irritation, or itching of the vagina
- Redness or irritation at the site of application
Q: How safe is Oestring? I am using it for hot flashes. What are the benefits and the risks?
A: Estrogen products are approved for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes. There have been several studies done by the Women's Health Initiative that have found that there is an increased risk of stroke and deep vein thrombosis (blood clots) in women 50 to 79 years of age during 7 years of treatment with 0.625mg of premarin daily. It has also been found that estrogen alone does not increase the risk of breast cancer, and in fact may decrease the risk. It is recommended to use the lowest effective dose for your symptoms for the shortest period of time. Here is a link to more information on Oestring: //www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/Oestring Lori Poulin, PharmD