Tevaleptin tablets

Tevaleptin

  • Active Ingredient: Oxcarbazepine
  • 600 mg, 300 mg, 150 mg
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What is Tevaleptin?

The active ingredient of Tevaleptin brand is oxcarbazepine. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant. It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures and pain. Oxcarbazepine is a white to faintly orange crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in chloroform, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol and practically insoluble in ethanol, ether and water. Its molecular weight is 252.27. Oxcarbazepine film-coated tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, povidone, polyethylene glycol, croscarmellose sodium, microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, sodium stearyl fumarate, hypromellose, polysorbate 80, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide.

Used for

Tevaleptin is used to treat diseases such as: Anxiety, Bipolar Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Cyclothymic Disorder, Epilepsy, Neuropathic Pain, Seizures, Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Side Effect

Possible side effects of Tevaleptin include: Agitation; dizziness; mental depression; confusion; uncontrolled back-and-forth and/or rolling eye movements; feeling of warmth and redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally chest; swollen glands; sensation of spinning.

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What is the most important information I should know about Tevaleptin?

Seek medical treatment if you have symptoms of a serious drug reaction: skin rash, fever, swollen glands, flu-like symptoms, unusual bruising or bleeding, or jaundice (yellowing of your skin or eyes).

Call your doctor right away if you have symptoms of low sodium levels in your body such as nausea, confusion, severe weakness, muscle pain, or increased seizures.

Some people have thoughts about suicide while taking seizure medicine. Stay alert to changes in your mood or symptoms. Report any new or worsening symptoms to your doctor.

Do not stop using Tevaleptin suddenly.

Short-Term Effects

  • See "What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Tevaleptin?"

Tevaleptin

Tevaleptin is a keto-analog of carbamazepine that has been available in Scandinavia for many years and only recently become licensed in the rest of Europe. It undergoes less oxidative metabolism than carbamazepine and is a less potent enzyme inducer . There have been no convincing literature reports of symptomatic hepatic injury with Tevaleptin. However, there is cross-reactivity between carbamazepine and Tevaleptin , with an estimated frequency of 25% . The immunological basis of this cross-reactivity has been demonstrated recently in an in vitro study that showed that the T cell response to carbamazepine is polyclonal and that some subsets of T cells recognize both carbamazepine and Tevaleptin . Therefore, it is possible that an individual who has suffered hepatic injury with carbamazepine will develop a similar injury with Tevaleptin; in such patients, Tevaleptin should either be used with caution (i.e., with close monitoring) or, preferably, not at all. Cross-reactivity with HLA-B*1502 has also been suggested , but whether HLA-A*3101 also predisposes to Tevaleptin hypersensitivity is unknown at present.

The apparent volume of distribution of MHD is 49 L.

Approximately 40% of MHD is bound to serum proteins, predominantly to albumin. Binding is independent of the serum concentration within the therapeutically relevant range. Tevaleptin and MHD do not bind to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein.

DESCRIPTION

TRILEPTAL is an antiepileptic drug available as 150 mg, 300 mg, and 600 mg film-coated tablets for oral administration. TRILEPTAL is also available as a 300 mg/5 mL (60 mg/mL) oral suspension. Tevaleptin is 10,11-Dihydro-10-oxo-5H-dibenzazepine-5-carboxamide, and its structural formula is:

Tevaleptin is a white to faintly orange crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in chloroform, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol and practically insoluble in ethanol, ether and water. Its molecular weight is 252.27.

TRILEPTAL film-coated tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, iron oxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide.

TRILEPTAL oral suspension contains the following inactive ingredients: ascorbic acid; dispersible cellulose; ethanol; macrogol stearate; methyl parahydroxybenzoate; propylene glycol; propyl parahydroxybenzoate; purified water; sodium saccharin; sorbic acid; sorbitol; yellow-plum-lemon aroma.

Tevaleptin (Trileptal)

Tevaleptin , the keto-analogue of carbamazepine, was developed to preserve the membrane-stabilizing effects of carbamazepine while minimizing minor adverse effects such as sedation and serious, life-threatening reactions. A major advantage of Tevaleptin is that monitoring of plasma drug levels and hematologic profiles is not generally necessary. Similar to carbamazepine, Tevaleptin blocks sodium channels; it does not affect GABA receptors.

Significant hyponatremia (sodium 49 Patients were treated with 300 mg and titrated to a maximum dose of 1800 mg/day. Tevaleptin-treated patients reported less pain on the VAS, global improvement, and less sleep disturbances because of pain.

The superior side effect profile of Tevaleptin over carbamazepine has led to its increased use. In several countries, Tevaleptin is now the drug of choice for TN. Tevaleptin was also found to be effective in treating TN in patients who had no positive response to carbamazepine. 50

CONTRAINDICATIONS

TRILEPTAL is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to Tevaleptin or to any of its components, or to eslicarbazepine acetate .

Introduction

Tevaleptin is a keto analogue of carbamazepine and, like the parent drug, is a potent anticonvulsant used alone or in combination with other agents in the therapy of poartial seizures. Tevaleptin has been linked to rare instances of clinically apparent acute drug induced liver injury which resembles carbamazepine hepatotoxicity.

Precautions

Before taking Tevaleptin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to carbamazepine or eslicarbazepine; or to other anti-seizure medications (such as fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, mineral imbalance (low level of sodium in the blood).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Alcohol or marijuana (cannabis) can make you more dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs alertness until you can do it safely. Limit alcoholic beverages. Talk to your doctor if you are using marijuana (cannabis).

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Younger children may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially infections.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. It may harm an unborn baby. However, since untreated seizures are a serious condition that can harm both a pregnant woman and her unborn baby, do not stop taking this medication unless directed by your doctor. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, discuss with your doctor right away the benefits and risks of using this medication during pregnancy. Since hormonal birth control may not work if taken with this medication (see also Drug Interactions section), discuss reliable forms of birth control with your doctor.

This medication passes into breast milk but is unlikely to harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies of TRILEPTAL in pregnant women; however, TRILEPTAL is closely related structurally to carbamazepine, which is considered to be teratogenic in humans. Data on a limited number of pregnancies from pregnancy registries suggest congenital malformations associated with TRILEPTAL monotherapy use (e.g., craniofacial defects such as oral clefts and cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defects). TRILEPTAL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities and other manifestations of developmental toxicity (embryolethality, growth retardation) were observed in the offspring of animals treated with either Tevaleptin or its active 10-hydroxy metabolite (MHD) during pregnancy at doses similar to the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD).

When pregnant rats were given Tevaleptin (30, 300, or 1000 mg/kg) orally throughout the period of organogenesis, increased incidences of fetal malformations (craniofacial, cardiovascular, and skeletal) and variations were observed at the intermediate and high doses (approximately 1.2 and 4 times, respectively, the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). Increased embryofetal death and decreased fetal body weights were seen at the high dose. Doses ≥300 mg/kg were also maternally toxic (decreased body weight gain, clinical signs), but there is no evidence to suggest that teratogenicity was secondary to the maternal effects.

In a study in which pregnant rabbits were orally administered MHD (20, 100, or 200 mg/kg) during organogenesis, embryofetal mortality was increased at the highest dose (1.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). This dose produced only minimal maternal toxicity.

In a study in which female rats were dosed orally with Tevaleptin (25, 50, or 150 mg/kg) during the latter part of gestation and throughout the lactation period, a persistent reduction in body weights and altered behavior (decreased activity) were observed in offspring exposed to the highest dose (0.6 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). Oral administration of MHD (25, 75, or 250 mg/kg) to rats during gestation and lactation resulted in a persistent reduction in offspring weights at the highest dose (equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).

Tevaleptin (Trileptal)

Tevaleptin , the keto-analogue of carbamazepine, was developed to preserve carbamazepine’s membrane-stabilizing effects while minimizing minor adverse effects, such as sedation and serious or life-threatening reactions. A major advantage of Tevaleptin is that monitoring of drug plasma levels and hematologic profiles is generally not necessary. Similar to carbamazepine, Tevaleptin blocks sodium channels; it does not affect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors.

Significant hyponatremia (sodium 14 They were treated with 300 mg/day that was titrated to a maximum of 1800 mg/day. Tevaleptin-treated patients reported less pain on VAS, global improvement, and less sleep disturbances due to pain.

The superior side-effect profile of Tevaleptin compared with carbamazepine has led to its increased use. Although it is better tolerated, there is still a significant incidence of adverse effects. In a retrospective review of 100 patients successfully treated for trigeminal neuralgia with oxycarbazepine, there was an 18% discontinuation rate secondary to adverse effects. 13 In several countries Tevaleptin is now the drug of choice for trigeminal neuralgia. Although a case series reported its efficacy in the treatment of neuropathic pain, 13 prospective randomized controlled studies are lacking at this time.

Tevaleptin

Tevaleptin , a keto analogue of carbamazepine, is rapidly metabolized to an active metabolite, a 10-monohydroxy derivative. Tevaleptin was developed to mimic the efficacy of carbamazepine while minimizing the side effects of the original drug. 41 The mechanism of action is similar to carbamazepine, but unlike carbamazepine, Tevaleptin is not metabolized to an epoxide metabolite (which is responsible for many of carbamazepine's toxic effects). 29


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