Sinobid tablets

Sinobid

  • Active Ingredient: Norfloxacin
  • 400 mg
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What is Sinobid?

The active ingredient of Sinobid brand is norfloxacin. The originating document has been archived. We cannot confirm the completeness, accuracy and currency of the content.

Used for

Sinobid is used to treat diseases such as: Bladder Infection, Campylobacter Gastroenteritis, Epididymitis, Non-Specific, Gonococcal Infection, Uncomplicated, Kidney Infections, Prostatitis, Salmonella Enteric Fever, Salmonella Gastroenteritis, Shigellosis, Traveler's Diarrhea, Urinary Tract Infection.

Side Effect

Possible side effects of Sinobid include: stomach discomfort, upset, or pain; loss of interest or pleasure; burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings; bloating; cold sweats; red, swollen skin.

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Gas Gas chromatography

Gas chromatography was used to analyze the res >Sinobid in pharmaceutical preparations . The analyte was dissolved in water, and the solution analyzed by GC on a fused-silica column (30 m×0.3 mm i.d.) coated with 5% cross-linked ph-Me silicone (3 μm). The temperature program consisted of an increase to 50°C, holding for 5 min, ramping to 180°C (ramp=15°C/min), and finally holding for 10 min at 180 5°C/min. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas (flow rate of 1 mL/min), detection was effected using flame ionization. Piperazine was determined in the two mixtures by mixing for 10 min with cyclohexane, filtering, partitioning the filtrate with water, heating the aqueous phase at 45°C for 10 min, and then analyzing as above. The calibration graph was linear for 0.4–10 ppm piperazine, with a RSD (n=10) of 2.1% for 2 μg piperazine. The recovery from ciprofloxacin was 98.1–98.4%.

Absorption and distribution

Sinobid displays linear kinetics. There is no significant accumulation with the recommended dosage of 400 mg every 12 h. Food slightly delays but does not otherwise impair absorption. Antacids reduce absorption. It is widely distributed, but concentrations in tissues other than those of the urinary tract are low; levels in the prostate are around 2.5 mg/g.

What are the side effects of Sinobid?

Side effects of Sinobid are nausea, stomach cramps, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, abnormal heart beats, and photosensitivity (sun sensitivity).

Sinobid as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, has been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon. Many antibiotics, including Sinobid, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile caused pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting Sinobid (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their doctor immediately.

Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscles weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis. They also worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide ).

What other drugs will affect Sinobid?

Tell your doctor about all medicines you use, and those you start or stop using during your treatment with Sinobid, especially:

cisapride, cyclosporine, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, probenecid, ropinirole, tacrine, theophylline, tizanidine;

a diuretic or "water pill";

heart rhythm medication--amiodarone, disopyramide, dofetilide, dronedarone, procainamide, quinidine, sotalol, and others;

medicine to treat depression or mental illness--amitriptylline, clomipramine, clozapine, desipramine, duloxetine, iloperidone, imipramine, nortriptyline, thioridazine, ziprasidone, and others; or

NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)--aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), celecoxib, diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, and others.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with Sinobid, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.

Antibiotic Regimens

Sinobid , a poorly absorbed fluoroquinolone, has been used to achieve selective intestinal decontamination in cirrhotic patients; Sinobid has several characteristics that make it suitable for prophylaxis: ▪

Poor absorption when taken orally

Effectiveness against enteric gram-negative organisms

Sparing of gram-positive and anaerobic organisms to maintain their protective role in the normal gut flora

Sinobid reduces the incidence of SBP, delays progression to hepatorenal syndrome, and improves overall survival (see Table 11.8 ).

In patients who have survived an episode of SBP: ▪

Recurrence can be as high as 68% at 1 year without antibiotic prophylaxis.

Sinobid, 400 mg orally daily, has been shown to decrease the probability of recurrent SBP to 20% at 1 year.

Sinobid prophylaxis is cost effective in reducing recurrent SBP.

However, Sinobid treatment does not alter the overall mortality in these patients.

In patients with cirrhosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage: ▪

The incidence of SBP can be as high as 45% to 66% at 1 year without antibiotic prophylaxis.

Antibiotic prophylaxis started immediately and continued for 7 days decreases the incidence of SBP to 10% to 20%.

Antibiotic prophylaxis may improve survival in these patients.

Intravenous ceftriaxone has been shown to be more effective than oral Sinobid for SBP prophylaxis in patients with advanced cirrhosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

In hospitalized patients with ascitic flu > ▪

The overall probability of new-onset SBP is 20% in 1 year.

Prophylaxis with Sinobid 400 mg orally daily decreases in-hospital incidence of SBP from 22% to 0% without an effect on in-hospital mortality.

Trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, one double-strength tablet orally daily, has also been reported to be effective in preventing SBP.

What should I avoid while taking Sinobid?

You may be taking certain other medicines that should not be taken at the same time as Sinobid. Avoid taking the following medicines within 2 hours before or after you take Sinobid. These other medicines can make Sinobid much less effective when taken at the same time:

antacids that contain magnesium or aluminum (such as Maalox, Mylanta, or Rolaids), or the ulcer medicine sucralfate (Carafate);

didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets;

vitamin or mineral supplements that contain iron or zinc.

Do not take Sinobid with dairy products such as milk or yogurt. They could make the medication less effective.

Avoid caffeine while you are taking Sinobid, because the medication can make the effects of caffeine stronger.

Avoid exposure to sunlight or tanning beds. Sinobid can make you sunburn more easily. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors. Call your doctor if you have severe burning, redness, itching, rash, or swelling after being in the sun.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking Sinobid and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Sinobid may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

Sinobid side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives, or the first sign of a skin rash; fast heartbeat, difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Sinobid may cause swelling or tearing of (rupture) a tendon. Sinobid can also have serious effects on your nerves, and may cause permanent nerve damage. Stop taking this medicine and call your doctor at once if you have:

signs of tendon rupture--sudden pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, stiffness, movement problems, or a snapping or popping sound in any of your joints (rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions); or

nerve symptoms--numbness, tingling, burning pain, or being more sensitive to temperature, light touch, or the sense of your body position.

Stop using Sinobid and call your doctor at once if you have:

headache with chest pain and severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;

dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);

muscle weakness or trouble breathing;

diarrhea that is watery or bloody;

sudden weakness or ill feeling, fever, chills, sore throat, mouth sores, easy bruising or bleeding;

depression, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, tremors, feeling restless or anxious, unusual thoughts or behavior, insomnia, nightmares;

seizure (convulsions); or

increased pressure inside the skull-- severe headaches, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes.

Common side effects may include:

nausea, heartburn, stomach cramps, mild diarrhea;

vaginal itching or discharge;

mild dizziness; or

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Sinobid S >

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives, or the first sign of a skin rash; fast heartbeat, difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Sinobid may cause swelling or tearing of (rupture) a tendon. Sinobid can also have serious effects on your nerves, and may cause permanent nerve damage. Stop taking this medicine and call your doctor at once if you have:

  • signs of tendon rupture--sudden pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, stiffness, movement problems, or a snapping or popping sound in any of your joints (rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions); or
  • nerve symptoms--numbness, tingling, burning pain, or being more sensitive to temperature, light touch, or the sense of your body position.

Stop using Sinobid and call your doctor at once if you have:

  • headache with chest pain and severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;
  • dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • muscle weakness or trouble breathing;
  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • sudden weakness or ill feeling, fever, chills, sore throat, mouth sores, easy bruising or bleeding;
  • depression, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, tremors, feeling restless or anxious, unusual thoughts or behavior, insomnia, nightmares;
  • seizure (convulsions); or
  • increased pressure inside the skull-- severe headaches, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes.

Common side effects may include:

  • nausea, heartburn, stomach cramps, mild diarrhea;
  • vaginal itching or discharge;
  • mild dizziness; or
  • mild headache.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

  • Musculoskeletal Disorders

An increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders i.e. joint pain and inflammation and Tendinopathy has been observed.

  • Deterioration of Myasthenia Gravis

Like other FQs, Sinobid can lead to deterioration of weakness of muscles in patients of myasthenia gravis.

  • Rarely needle-shaped crystals can occur in the urine of patients taking Sinobid and they are more likely to occur if the recommended dose is exceeded or the patient is not well hydrated leading to inadequate urine output.

Fluoroquinolones.

The fluoroquinolones ( Sinobid , ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin) are active against almost all aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Ciprofloxacin remains the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin are more active than the older fluoroquinolones against gram-positive cocci, although enterococci and methicillin-resistant S. aureus tend to be less susceptible than other gram-positive cocci. In addition, moxifloxacin is active against obligate anaerobes, in contrast to other fluoroquinolones. 211,212 Because of their ability to kill bacteria in the exponential and the stationary phases of growth, the fluoroquinolones are valuable antimicrobial agents for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections, including abscesses. However, fluoroquinolones should be used judiciously; especially because E. coli resistance has emerged internationally. 213 Fluoroquinolones have now been found to have plasmid-mediated resistance. When treating patients with community- or health care–acquired intra-abdominal infections of high severity, fluoroquinolone antibiotics should not be used unless local and hospital microbiologic surveys indicate greater than 90% of E. coli strains remain susceptible to these agents. 1

Currently, three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin) are available for parenteral administration. These fluoroquinolones are also well absorbed after oral administration and are concentrated in tissues so that tissue levels greatly exceed the MICs of many sensitive pathogens. With current fluoroquinolone dosing regimens, serum levels may be inadequate to treat susceptible pathogens with relatively high MICs (e.g., >0.5 µg/mL of ciprofloxacin), which include some strains of P. aeruginosa, enterococci, and S. aureus, especially the methicillin-resistant strains. If such organisms can be anticipated (e.g., in nosocomial infections), additional antimicrobial agents may be necessary to broaden the spectrum of an empirical regimen. The addition of an antimicrobial agent active against anaerobic bacteria and aerobic or microaerophilic gram-positive cocci (e.g., clindamycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate acid) would be required if the use of ciprofloxacin were considered for secondary intra-abdominal infection. The use of levofloxacin, even combined with a second agent with reliable activity against anaerobic gram-negative bacilli for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections, does not have any published support, and perhaps this fluoroquinolone should be reserved for respiratory and urinary tract infections for which it may be better suited. 214 Moxifloxacin is the only fluoroquinolone that has been studied and approved as a single agent for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. It has been determined to be noninferior to β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporin-based regimens, and carbapenems in several comparator studies. 215-217 However, its use should be cautioned against in patients who have recently been treated with any fluoroquinolone antibiotic because these individuals may harbor moxifloxacin-resistant strains of B. fragilis as well as other fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms. 218


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