4.4 Spectrophotometric Methods of Analysis
When Flutamid is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, color formation occurs with an absorption maximum of 380 nm. This reaction was used to develop a simple and sensitive method for the assay determination of Flutamid drug substance, and in formulated product . The method was linear over the range 2.5 – 15.0 μg/mL, and the chromophore remained stable for 1 hour in solution.
Flutamid tablets may be assayed using UV spectrophotometry at 304 nm . Tablets are sonicated and diluted in ethanol. After centrifugation, an aliquot is diluted in 20:80 ethanol / 40 mM pH 8.0 Britton Robinson buffer.
How Flutamid works
Prostate cancer needs the male hormone testosterone to grow. Testosterone is also called an androgen.
Flutamid is a type of hormone drug called an anti androgen. It stops testosterone from reaching the cancer cells. This can slow the growth of your cancer and may shrink it.
About flutam >
Flutamid belongs to a group of medicines known as anti-androgens. This means that it blocks the actions of male sex hormones called androgens. It also reduces the amount of male hormones (such as testosterone) that your body produces.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Flutamid?
- If you have an allergy to Flutamid or any other part of Flutamid.
- If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
- If you have liver disease or raised liver enzymes.
- If you are a woman. This medicine is not approved for use in women. If you are a woman using Flutamid, talk with your doctor if you are pregnant, plan on getting pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with Flutamid.
Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take Flutamid with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
This page contains brief information about Flutamid and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
Find Lowest Prices on
Eulexin® (Flutamid) Capsules
There have been postmarketing reports of hospitalization and rarely death due to liver failure in patients taking Flutamid. Evidence of hepatic injury included elevated serum transaminase levels, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, and death related to acute hepatic failure. The hepatic injury was reversible after discontinuation of therapy in some patients. Approximately half of the reported cases occurred within the initial 3 months of treatment with Flutamid.
Serum transaminase levels should be measured prior to starting treatment with Flutamid. Flutamid is not recommended in patients whose ALT values exceed twice the upper limit of normal. Serum transaminase levels should then be measured monthly for the first 4 months of therapy, and periodically thereafter. Liver function tests also should be obtained at the first signs and symptoms suggestive of liver dysfunction, eg, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, "flu-like" symptoms, hyperbilirubinuria, jaundice, or right upper quadrant tenderness. If at any time a patient has jaundice, or their ALT rises above 2 times the upper limit of normal, Flutamid should be immediately discontinued with close follow-up of liver function tests until resolution.
BRAND NAME(S): Eulexin
WARNING: Rarely, Flutamid has caused severe (sometimes fatal) liver problems. Immediately tell your doctor if you develop symptoms of liver problems (such as loss of appetite, persistent nausea/vomiting, persistent stomach/abdominal pain, severe tiredness, dark urine, yellowing eyes/skin, aching muscles, joint pain). Liver problems can happen at any time while taking Flutamid, but they occur most often during the first 3 months of treatment. Your doctor will tell you whether to stop or continue Flutamid. Your doctor will monitor your liver function with blood tests while you take Flutamid. Keep all medical and laboratory appointments. Avoid alcohol while taking Flutamid.
USES: This medication is used to treat men with prostate cancer, and is used with other medications and sometimes with radiation treatments. Flutamid belongs to a class of drugs known as anti-androgens (anti-testosterone). Testosterone, a natural hormone, helps prostate cancer to grow and spread. Flutamid works by blocking the effects of testosterone, thereby slowing the growth and spread of prostate cancer.
Flutamid (FLUT) is an antiandrogen which interferes the binding of androgen to androgen receptor in target organs. Effects of FLUT on spermatogenesis have recently been summarized by Anahara et al. (2008) . Both neonatal and adult mice showed morphological abnormalities in the testis after subcutaneous injections of FLUT at 0.012 mg kg −1 b.w. for 5 days. FLUT apparently exerts its effects via depolymerization of actin bundles at the apical ES but not basal ES by tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin ( Anahara et al. 2006a,b ) ( Table 3 ). However, FLUT seems to target cortactin specifically at the apical ES but not at the basal ES. Cortactin is an F-actin binding protein and its tyrosine phosphorylation status is directly correlated to actin bundle remodeling in chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells ( Fan et al. 2004 ), as well as centrosome separation during mitosis ( Wang et al. 2008 ). Cortactin was localized to the heads of elongated spermatids when examined by immunohistochemistry. When mice were treated with FLUT at 0.012 mg kg −1 b.w. for 5 days, the protein level of cortactin was significantly reduced at stages VI–IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle, concomitant with a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylated cortactin protein in the testis ( Anahara et al. 2006a,b ). Besides its effects on disrupting the association between Sertoli–germ cell at the apical ES, subcutaneous administration of FLUT was shown to perturb the Sertoli–Sertoli cell interaction by downregulating the expression of TJ protein occludin in rat testis ( Gye and Ohsako 2003 ). It is likely that FLUT mediates its effects on cell junctions by blocking androgen action in the testis since testosterone has been shown to upregulate occludin expression in Sertoli cell cultures ( Chung and Cheng 2001 ) and promote junction integrity at the BTB ( Yan et al. 2008a ).
Table 3 . Effects of Flutamid on cell junctions in the testis