In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effects of anthelmintic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood on early childhood response to immunisations and infectious diseases inc >Albendakem or placebo and praziquantel (PZQ) or placebo. Of their offspring 2016 aged 15 months to 5 years were then randomised to receive quarterly single-dose Albendakem or placebo; 2345 children were born during this time and 1622 remained in follow-up at 5 years of age. Almost 68% of women at enrolment (1705 of 2507) and 10.6% of children at age 5 were infected with at least one helminth. Treatment with Albendakem during pregnancy led to statistically significant higher eczema rates in offspring. Helminthic infections are known to elicit powerful type 2 immune reactions thus downregulating type 1 immune responses. This helps explain the lower rates of allergy and autoimmunity in populations with high helminthic infections in addition to the increased rate of eczema seen in offspring of pregnant women treated with Albendakem. Interestingly, lower rates of clinical malaria were found in children treated with quarterly Albendakem .
In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Malaysia, 37 T. trichiura-infected children, aged 6–7 years received Albendakem 400 mg or placebo for 2 days. Twelve months after treatment a height discrepancy was noted between the two groups. The placebo group had a significantly greater increase in height compared to the treatment cohort (p = 0.04) .
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 533 T. trichiura-infected children in Pemba, Tanzania, consisted of treatment with 1000 mg of nitazoxanide + placebo, placebo + 400 mg of Albendakem or 1000 mg of nitazoxanide on day 1 followed by 400 mg of Albendakem on day 2. Common side effects from Albendakem and nitazoxanide were headache, abdominal cramps, nausea, vertigo, diarrhoea, fever, allergic reaction, vomiting and fatigue . Cure rates for T. trichiura were equally low in all arms.
Albendakem is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract due to its low aqueous solubility. Albendakem concentrations are negligible or undetectable in plasma as it is rapidly converted to the sulfoxide metabolite prior to reaching the systemic circulation. The systemic anthelmintic activity has been attributed to the primary metabolite, Albendakem sulfoxide. Oral bioavailability appears to be enhanced when Albendakem is coadministered with a fatty meal (estimated fat content 40 grams) as evidenced by higher (up to 5-fold on average) plasma concentrations of Albendakem sulfoxide as compared to the fasted state.
Maximal plasma concentrations of Albendakem sulfoxide were achieved 2 hours to 5 hours after dosing and were on average 1310 ng/mL (range 460 ng/mL to 1580 ng/mL) following oral doses of Albendakem (400 mg) in 6 hydatid disease patients, when administered with a fatty meal. Plasma concentrations of Albendakem sulfoxide increased in a dose-proportional manner over the therapeutic dose range following ingestion of a high-fat meal (fat content 43.1 grams). The mean apparent terminal elimination half-life of Albendakem sulfoxide ranged from 8 hours to 12 hours in 25 healthy subjects, as well as in 14 hydatid and 8 neurocysticercosis patients.
Following 4 weeks of treatment with Albendakem (200 mg three times daily), 12 patients’ plasma concentrations of Albendakem sulfoxide were approximately 20% lower than those observed during the first half of the treatment period, suggesting that Albendakem may induce its own metabolism.
Albendakem sulfoxide is 70% bound to plasma protein and is widely distributed throughout the body; it has been detected in urine, bile, liver, cyst wall, cyst fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Concentrations in plasma were 3-fold to 10-fold and 2-fold to 4-fold higher than those simultaneously determined in cyst fluid and CSF, respectively.
Metabolism and Excretion
Albendakem is rapidly converted in the liver to the primary metabolite, Albendakem sulfoxide, which is further metabolized to Albendakem sulfone and other primary oxidative metabolites that have been identified in human urine. Following oral administration, Albendakem has not been detected in human urine. Urinary excretion of Albendakem sulfoxide is a minor elimination pathway with less than 1% of the dose recovered in the urine. Biliary elimination presumably accounts for a portion of the elimination as evidenced by biliary concentrations of Albendakem sulfoxide similar to those achieved in plasma.
Following single-dose administration of 200 mg to 300 mg (approximately 10 mg/kg) ALBENZA to 3 fasted and 2 fed pediatric patients with hydatid cyst disease (age range 6 to 13 years), Albendakem sulfoxide pharmacokinetics were similar to those observed in fed adults.
Although no studies have investigated the effect of age on Albendakem sulfoxide pharmacokinetics, data in 26 hydatid cyst patients (up to 79 years) suggest pharmacokinetics similar to those in young healthy subjects.
Albendakem ( Fig. 42-1 ) has a mode of action similar to other benzimidazoles; it is effective against a wide range of helminths and some protozoa. It is directly active against intestinal parasites; thus, the relatively poor absorption of the parent drug from the intestine is ideal for an intraluminal effect. For tissue-dwelling helminths, however, Albendakem acts as a prodrug, with the metabolite Albendakem sulfoxide being responsible for anthelmintic activity outside the intestinal lumen. The efficacy of Albendakem against tissue-dwelling helminth infections, such as echinococcosis, is difficult to reliably predict, 6 in part because of variable intestinal levels of the active metabolite in blood and tissues. 7
COMMON BRAND(S): Albenza
GENERIC NAME(S): Albendakem
OTHER NAME(S): Albendakem Tablet
This medication is used to treat certain tapeworm infections (such as neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease).
It's crucial to take Albendakem as suggested to obtain the results expected. It removes the worms of the nutrients needed to make it through and multiply, consequently killing them in the physical body. It's vital to take Albendakem as recommended to obtain the results anticipated. This would indicate being able to purchase Albendakem on-line securely and in simply a few mins.
Following a single dose of Albendakem (400 mg), the pharmacokinetics of theophylline (aminophylline 5.8 mg/kg infused over 20 minutes) were unchanged. Albendakem induces cytochrome P450 1A in human hepatoma cells; therefore, it is recommended that plasma concentrations of theophylline be monitored during and after treatment.
Bioavailability of Albendakem is poor, but is increased when ingested with food. Absorption can be increased five-fold when Albendakem is ingested with high-fat foods. Albendakem is rapidly converted to Albendakem sulfoxide via first pass hepatic metabolism, reaching peak levels 2–5 hours after ingestion. Albendakem sulfoxide is 70% protein bound in plasma and is distributed throughout tissue, including cerebrospinal fluid. Concentrations in hydatid cyst fluid are higher than those seen for mebendazole. The mean half-life is 8–12 hours, with excretion probably through the biliary system. Conversion to Albendakem sulfoxide also occurs in the gut epithelium, where the metabolite is then excreted directly into the lumen. There is significant intra- and inter-individual variability.
Order Albendakem (Generic Albenza) Over The Counter (OTC)
It could have to be taken as soon as or two times a day, depending on the degree of infestation and kind of infection dealt with.
What should I avoid while taking Albendakem?
Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Tell your doctor at once if you develop signs of infection.
- Hypersensitivity to Albendakem or benzimidazoles.
Effects of Drug Abuse
- See "What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Albendakem?"
- See "What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Albendakem?"
- Monitor theophylline levels if used concomitantly.
- Potential for bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis; monitor blood counts in all patients at the beginning of each 28-day cycle of therapy, and every 2 weeks while on therapy; discontinue therapy if clinically significant changes in blood counts occur.
- Pre-existing neurocysticercosis may be uncovered in patients treated with Albendakem for other conditions, apparent by neurological symptoms (such as seizures, increased intracranial pressure, focal signs); promptly treat with corticosteroid and anticonvulsant therapy.
- Obtain pregnancy test in women of reproductive potential prior to therapy and avoid usage in pregnant women except in clinical circumstances where no alternative management is appropriate; discontinue therapy if pregnancy occurs and apprise patient of potential hazard to fetus.
- Risk of retinal damage in retinal cysticercosis; cases of retinal involvement reported; examine patient for presence of retinal lesions before initiating therapy for neurocysticercosis.
- Reversible elevations of liver enzymes may occur; monitor liver enzymes before start of each treatment cycle and at least every 2 weeks while on therapy and discontinue if clinically significant elevations occur; patients with abnormal liver function tests and hepaticechinococcosis are at increased risk of hepatotoxicity; discontinue therapy if liver function test elevations are greater than 2 times upper limit of normal; may consider restarting treatment when liver function test values return to pretreatment levels.
- Use Albendakem during pregnancy with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies are not available or neither animal nor human studies were done.
- Breastfeeding patients should use caution while using Albendakem; consult your physician.
Studies in children younger than 6 years are limited, but several studies have shown Albendakem to be safe in children as young as 1 year of age. For children 1–2 years old, a dose of 200 mg is recommended. Use of Albendakem in children