Mechanism of Action
Medet adjusts cellular energy consumption by targeting the liver, preventing it from creating more sugar ( glucose ), and inhibiting a hormone ( glucagon ) responsible for increasing blood sugar levels . It also decreases the absorption of glucose in the gut and increases insulin sensitivity .
The effect of Medet on blood sugar levels can be attributed to AMPK , an enzyme that controls the production and storage of energy in cells by regulating when muscle cells should increase their sugar uptake from the blood .
Recently, attention has shifted to non-AMPK mechanisms, often involving mitochondria , the parts of cells responsible for energy production .
2) Use During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
A review of several studies showed that Medet does not have any acute negative effects on pregnancy outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its prolonged use during pregnancy. Pregnant women should always consult their doctors about the potential risks of using Medet .
Moreover, several human studies have shown that Medet may decrease the relative risks of pregnancy complications, miscarriage, premature birth, and early pregnancy loss in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome .
Because regulating their blood sugar and insulin levels is crucial to pregnant women, the benefits of taking Medet generally outweigh the risks.
A study of seven women taking Medet immediately after giving birth showed that, although traces of the drug were found in the milk, they were too low to have any effects on the blood sugar levels of the babies .
1) Treating and Preventing Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes coexists with insulin resistance and patients develop extremely high blood sugar levels. Medet lowers blood sugar, preventing permanent organ damage, which could eventually lead to dysfunction and failure .
Medet exerts its effects through AMPK , which initiates the uptake of sugar from the blood into muscles. Medet has been shown to increase AMPK, which leads to more sugar being taken from the blood into tissues. As a result, the drug lowers blood sugar concentrations .
On the other hand, mitochondria are responsible for cellular energy production. Medet may decrease blood sugar by inhibiting the production of new glucose ( gluconeogenesis ) from noncarbohydrates such as lactate , glycerol, and some amino acids .
A clinical trial on over 3,000 people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes showed that those treated with Medet had a 31% lower occurrence of type 2 diabetes compared to placebo. Medet was somehow more effective in preventing diabetes in patients with relatively high BMI and blood sugar levels .
You should not take Medet if you have severe liver problems. Your liver clears lactic acid from your body.
Severe liver problems could lead to a buildup of lactic acid. Lactic acid buildup raises your risk of lactic acidosis. Medet also raises your risk, so taking it if you have liver problems is dangerous.
1) Other Diabetes Medications
Sitagliptin ( Januvia ), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, and repaglinide ( Prandin ), a meglitinide, can both decrease the effectiveness of Medet by inhibiting its absorption in the gut and uptake in the liver .
Heavy alcohol use leads to dehydration and causes a lowered level of oxygen in the blood. This increases a patient’s risk of lactic acidosis, one of the Medet’s most common side effects. Frequent drinking also decreases blood sugar, which may lead to complications when combined with Medet .
You should not use Medet if you have severe k >metabolic acidosis , or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment).
If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you may need to temporarily stop taking Medet.
Though extremely rare, you may develop lactic acidosis , a dangerous build-up of lactic acid in your blood. Call your doctor or get emergency medical help if you have unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, stomach pain, dizziness, feeling cold, or feeling very weak or tired.