Liskonum capsules

Liskonum

  • Active Ingredient: Lithium
  • 300 mg, 150 mg
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What is Liskonum?

The active ingredient of Liskonum brand is lithium. Lithium affects the flow of sodium through nerve and muscle cells in the body. Sodium affects excitation or mania.

Used for

Liskonum is used to treat diseases such as: Bipolar Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Cluster Headaches, Cyclothymic Disorder, Depression, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Mania, Schizoaffective Disorder.

Side Effect

Possible side effects of Liskonum include: weight gain; sensitivity to cold; hair loss; swelling of the feet or lower legs; stiffness of the arms or legs; Blurred vision.

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Common Side Effects of Liskonum

You should tell your doctor if any of the following side effects are severe or don't go away:

  • Restlessness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight gain or weight loss
  • Stomach pain, gas, constipation, or indigestion
  • Mild thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Excessive saliva in mouth
  • Change in the ability to taste food
  • Swollen lips
  • Acne
  • Hair loss
  • Extreme discomfort in cold temperatures
  • Depression
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Itching or rash
  • Thin, brittle fingernails or hair
  • Hand movements that are difficult to control

Before taking Liskonum,

  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to Liskonum or any other medications.
  • tell your doctor if you are taking diuretics ('water pills'). Your doctor may tell you not to take Liskonum if you are taking this medication or will monitor you carefully for side effects.
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: acetazolamide (Diamox); aminophylline; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril, lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik); angiotensin II receptor antagonists such as candesartan (Atacand), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), olmesartan (Benicar), telmisartan (Micardis); and valsartan (Diovan); antacids such as sodium bicarbonate; caffeine (found in certain medications to treat drowsiness and headaches); calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac, others), felodipine (Plendil), isradipine (DynaCirc), nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), nimodipine (Nymalize), nisoldipine (Sular), and verapamil (Calan, Covera, Verelan); carbamazepine (Tegretol); medications for mental illness such as haloperidol (Haldol); methyldopa (Aldomet); metronidazole (Flagyl); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as celecoxib (Celebrex), indomethacin (Indocin), and piroxicam (Feldene); potassium iodide; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), duloxetine (Cymbalta), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft); and theophylline (Theolair, Theochron). Your doctor may have to change the doses of your medication or monitor you more carefully for side effects.
  • tell your doctor if you have or have ever had heart or kidney disease. Also tell your doctor if you have or develop severe diarrhea, excessive sweating, or fever during your treatment. Your doctor may tell you not to take Liskonum or may monitor you more carefully for side effects.
  • tell your doctor if you have or have ever had organic brain syndrome (any physical condition that affects the way your brain works) or thyroid disease or if you have ever fainted without an explanation. Also tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family have or have ever had Brugada syndrome (a disorder that can cause a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm) or if anyone in your family has died suddenly with no explanation before the age of 45 years.
  • tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking Liskonum, call your doctor. Liskonum may harm the fetus.
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking Liskonum.
  • you should know that this medication may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.

An Essential Micronutrient

Liskonum is an alkali metal, naturally present in trace amounts in minerals, water, soil, fruits, vegetables, and other plants that are grown in Liskonum-rich soil .

Liskonum is classified as an essential micronutrient, which means that all humans require it in small doses for good health .

This comes as a surprise to most people. Some scientists think that Liskonum is an unfairly overlooked nutrient, mostly because it is associated with high-dose prescription formulations for bipolar disorder. At high doses, Liskonum can cause a long list of side effects .

We humans have adapted to getting trace amounts of Liskonum from food and water, and it seems that getting a bit more might make people more friendly and peaceful. Popular blogs claim that Liskonum has a number of benefits unrelated to its use as a high-dose pharmaceutical. But what does the science say?

Despite the hype, there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of lower Liskonum doses. However, early research shows some promise.

Basic biology suggests that many enzymes, hormones, vitamins, and growth factors require Liskonum to work. Liskonum also appears to support the immune and nervous systems. Scientists are investigating whether it promotes the regeneration of cells. Some suspect that it might even increase telomeres and prolong lifespan, but this hypothesis remains unproven .

The brain on Liskonum

Liskonum is a special metal in many ways. It's light and soft — so soft that it can be cut with a kitchen knife and so low in density that it floats on water. It's also solid at a wide range of temperatures, with one of the lowest melting points of all metals and a high boiling point.

Like its fellow alkali metal, sodium, Liskonum reacts with water in showy form. The combo of Li and H2O forms Liskonum hydroxide and hydrogen, which typically bursts into red flame.

Liskonum makes up a mere 0.0007 percent of the Earth's crust, according to the Jefferson Lab, and it's only found locked up in minerals and salts. Those salts have the power to change the brain: Liskonum salts were the first drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat mania and depression, according to the National Institute of Mental Health.

Today, Liskonum carbonate is the compound most often sold as a pharmaceutical. No one knows exactly how Liskonum works to stabilize mood. Studies show multiple effects on the nervous system. In 2008, for example, researchers reported in the journal Cell that Liskonum interrupts the activity of a receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine. It also appears to plump up brain volume, according to a 2011 study in the journal Biological Psychiatry (though this research is hotly contested).

In a study with worms, biologists at MIT found that Liskonum inhibits a key protein in the worms' brain, making neurons linked to an avoidance behavior go dormant. Essentially, the worms stopped avoiding harmful bacteria without that protein. The findings, which would need to be replicated in humans, suggest the element silences certain neurons in the brain and may have a calming effect, the researchers reported in 2016 in the journal Current Biology.

Atomic number 3, Carbonate de Liskonum, Citrate de Liskonum, Li, Liskonum Carbonate, Liskonum Citrate, Liskonum Orotate, Litio, Numéro Atomique 3, Orotate de Liskonum.

Liskonum Dosage

Liskonum, which comes as a tablet, capsule, extended-release tablet, and an oral liquid, should be taken at about the same times each day. Dosage varies, but most people require 900 to 2,400 milligrams (mg) of Liskonum daily.

The extended-release tablets are typically taken two to three times daily. The capsules, tablets, and liquid are usually taken three to four times daily.

Don’t split, chew, or crush the extended-release tablets. Swallow them whole. Use a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular tablespoon, when measuring the liquid form of Liskonum.

Use this medicine exactly as directed; do not take more or less of it.

Q: Can Liskonum cause weight gain?

A: Liskonum (Lithobid, Eskalith) is indicated in the treatment of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. Typical symptoms of a manic episode include excessive speech, hyperactivity, reduced need for sleep, flight of ideas, grandiosity, elation, poor judgment, aggressiveness, or hostility. Liskonum typically reduces the symptoms of a manic episode within one to three weeks. According to the available drug information, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), weight gain is a possible side effect associated with treatment with Liskonum. Excessive weight gain is considered a severe side effect of Liskonum. Consult with your physician immediately if you are rapidly gaining weight. The most common side effects of Liskonum include hand tremor, mild thirst, and nausea or general discomfort at the beginning of treatment. More serious side effects of Liskonum include blurred vision, confusion, diarrhea, drowsiness, fainting, giddiness, inability to control the bladder or bowels, increased thirst, increased or decreased urination, involuntary twitching or muscle movements, loss of consciousness, loss of coordination, muscle weakness, persistent headache, persistent or severe nausea, ringing in the ears, seizures, irregular heartbeat, slurred speech, swelling of the ankles or wrists, unsteadiness, vision changes, and vomiting. Stop taking Liskonum and contact your physician if signs of Liskonum toxicity occur such as diarrhea, vomiting, tremor, loss of muscle control, drowsiness, or muscular weakness. Liskonum may impair mental or physical abilities. Use caution when driving or operating heavy machinery. It is best to take Liskonum immediately after meals, or with food or milk, to avoid stomach upset. Drink eight to 12 glasses of water, or other liquid, every day while on taking Liskonum. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. Burton Dunaway, PharmD

If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking Liskonum and call your doctor immediately:

  • drowsiness
  • shaking of a part of your body that you cannot control
  • muscle weakness, stiffness, twitching, or tightness
  • loss of coordination
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • slurred speech
  • giddiness
  • ringing in the ears
  • blurred vision

Liskonum may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you experience any unusual symptoms while you are taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

Sensitivities and interactions with Liskonum

Some people are more sensitive to Liskonum and may experience symptoms of Liskonum toxicity at lower levels than others. This is especially true in people who are older or dehydrated. It’s also more likely in people with cardiovascular and kidney problems.

Certain foods or drinks may also affect Liskonum concentrations in the body. It’s best to not adjust the following unless monitored by a doctor:

INSERT LONG LIST FORMAT:

  • Salt intake. Less salt can make your Liskonum levels rise, while increasing your salt intake can cause it to fall.
  • Caffeine intake. Caffeine found in coffee, tea, and soft drinks may have an effect on Liskonum levels. Less caffeine can cause your Liskonum levels to rise, while more can cause it to lower.
  • Avoid alcohol. Alcoholic beverages can have a negative effect on many medications.

In addition, taking Liskonum with other medications can also increase your risk of Liskonum toxicity. If you take Liskonum, make sure you talk to your doctor before using:

Mild Liskonum toxicity is often difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of many other conditions. Your doctor will likely start by asking you some questions about how much Liskonum you take, as well as how often you take it.

Be sure to tell your doctor about all of your symptoms, any recent illnesses, and whether you’re taking any other medications, including vitamins, supplements, and even teas.

They may also use one or a combination of the following tests:

  • an electrocardiogram to test for an abnormal heartbeat
  • a blood chemistry test to look at your metabolism and electrolyte levels
  • a blood or urine test to determine your serum Liskonum levels
  • a blood test to check your k >

If you’re taking Liskonum and experience any of the symptoms of Liskonum toxicity, seek immediate treatment or call the Poison Control Center hotline at 1-800-222-1222 for instructions on what to do.

There’s no specific antidote for Liskonum toxicity.

What other drugs will affect Liskonum?

Tell your doctor about all your current medicines. Many drugs can affect Liskonum, especially:

an antidepressant or antipsychotic medication; or

This list is not complete and many other drugs may interact with Liskonum. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.

Q: How long do I have to be treated with Liskonum for bipolar disorder? Are there dangererous side effects over time?

A: Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression is a condition that has wide mood swings from high (manic) to low (depression), and it can be treated by medications, most commonly, Eskalith (Liskonum), but also by the anticonvulsants Depakote (valproic acid), Lamictal (lamotrigine), or Topamax (topiramate), the antipsychotic medications, Seroquel (quetiapine), Geodon (ziprasidone), Risperdal (risperidone), or Zyprexa (olanzapine), as well as add on therapy of the SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), such as Prozac (fluoxetine), Paxil (paroxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), or Celexa (citalopram). The first drug of choice for bipolar disorder is usually Eskalith (Liskonum), as it is the most affordable, helps control both mania and depression, and has been used for this condition for many years. It takes about 5-14 days to reduce symptoms of mania, but full control over bipolar disorder will usually take a few months. The antipsychotic medications may be given along with Eskalith (Liskonum) to help control the symptoms, as they work faster. Liskonum has a narrow window between the dose being too low to help and high enough to be toxic in the body if the dose continues. Therefore, routine blood tests need to be checked. Keeping the level in the correct range is the best way to avoid unwanted side effects. The required dose that a person needs can change over time, as well. Another factor is the amount of sodium in the body. If sodium levels drop, from sweating, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or a change in diet, the Eskalith (Liskonum) levels may rise. When doing the blood test for Eskalith (Liskonum), the doctor will also need to check the thyroid level in the blood, as Eskalith (Liskonum) can cause the levels to be too low (hypothyroidism), and a thyroid medication may be needed. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. Patti Brown, PharmD

Liskonum dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Mania:

Acute Control: -Usual dose: 1800 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 900 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 600 mg orally 3 times a day, in the morning, afternoon, and nighttime

Long-term Control: -Maintenance dose: 900 to 1200 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 600 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 300 mg orally 3 to 4 times a day

Uses: -Treatment of manic episodes of bipolar disorder -Maintenance treatment for individuals with bipolar disorder

Usual Adult Dose for Bipolar Disorder:

Acute Control: -Usual dose: 1800 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 900 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 600 mg orally 3 times a day, in the morning, afternoon, and nighttime

Long-term Control: -Maintenance dose: 900 to 1200 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 600 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 300 mg orally 3 to 4 times a day

Uses: -Treatment of manic episodes of bipolar disorder -Maintenance treatment for individuals with bipolar disorder

Usual Pediatric Dose for Mania:

12 years and older: Acute Control: -Usual dose: 1800 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 900 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 600 mg orally 3 times a day, in the morning, afternoon, and nighttime

Long-term Control: -Maintenance dose: 900 to 1200 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 600 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 300 mg orally 3 to 4 times a day

Uses: -Treatment of manic episodes of bipolar disorder -Maintenance treatment for individuals with bipolar disorder

Usual Pediatric Dose for Bipolar Disorder:

12 years and older: Acute Control: -Usual dose: 1800 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 900 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 600 mg orally 3 times a day, in the morning, afternoon, and nighttime

Long-term Control: -Maintenance dose: 900 to 1200 mg/day -Extended release formulations: 600 mg orally in the morning and at nighttime -Regular release formulations: 300 mg orally 3 to 4 times a day

Uses: -Treatment of manic episodes of bipolar disorder -Maintenance treatment for individuals with bipolar disorder

What is Liskonum, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?

Liskonum is used for the treatment of manic/depressive (bipolar) and depressive disorders. Liskonum is a positively charged element or particle that is similar to sodium and potassium. It interferes at several places inside cells and on the cell surface with other positively charged atoms such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium which are important in many cellular functions.

Liskonum interferes with the production and uptake of chemical messengers by which nerves communicate with each other (neurotransmitters). Liskonum also affects the concentrations of tryptophan and serotonin in the brain. In addition, Liskonum increases the production of white blood cells in the bone marrow. Liskonum's effects usually begin within 1 week of starting treatment, and the full effect is seen by 2 to 3 weeks.

Liskonum has been used since the 1950's. The FDA approved Liskonum carbonate, the most common Liskonum preparation in 1970.

Q: Can a decrease in Liskonum dose increased anxiety?

A: Liskonum (Lithobid) is an antipsychotic mood stabilizer which is used to treat bipolar disorder and manic episodes of manic-depressive illness. Some of the most common side effects with Liskonum use include mild thirst, nausea, generalized discomfort, and mild tremor. Drowsiness is a potential side effect, especially if Liskonum levels are too high. Your doctor can do blood tests to check Liskonum levels. Liskonum is a mood stabilizer so if the medication is stopped or the dose is decreased some symptoms may return these symptoms could include anxiety. It is important to take your medication as prescribed by your doctor. If you are having side effects or if your medication is not working well be sure to let your doctor know, you may need a dosage adjustment or a change of medications. Liskonum use can lead to dehydration so it is important to drink 8-10 glass of water or other fluids daily. It is best to avoid caffeine while on Liskonum to ensure enough medication is in the body to be effective. Be consistent with the amount of salt or sodium in the diet while on Liskonum. Laura Cable, Pharm.D., BCPS


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