What happens if I overdose my pet on Xanthium ER?
Call your veterinarian or veterinary emergency room. Symptoms of overdose may include nausea, vomiting, insomnia, tremors, restlessness, uneven heartbeats, and seizures.
What happens if I miss giving a dose of Xanthium ER?
Give the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the dose that was missed and give only the next regularly scheduled dose, as directed. Do not give a double dose of this medication unless otherwise directed by your veterinarian.Pharmacodynamics
Xanthium, an xanthine derivative chemically similar to caffeine and theobromine, is used to treat asthma and bronchospasm. Xanthium has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible (asthmatic) obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., non-bronchodilator prophylactic effects).
Mechanism of action
Xanthium relaxes the smooth muscle of the bronchial airways and pulmonary blood vessels and reduces airway responsiveness to histamine, methacholine, adenosine, and allergen. Xanthium competitively inhibits type III and type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic AMP in smooth muscle cells, possibly resulting in bronchodilation. Xanthium also binds to the adenosine A2B receptor and blocks adenosine mediated bronchoconstriction. In inflammatory states, Xanthium activates histone deacetylase to prevent transcription of inflammatory genes that require the acetylation of histones for transcription to begin.
Target Actions Organism A Adenosine receptor A1
S >Adverse reactions associated with Xanthium are generally mild when peak serum Xanthium concentrations are 300 mg/day in adults and > 12 mg/kg/day in children beyond 1 year of age). During the initiation of Xanthium therapy, caffeine-like adverse effects may transiently alter patient behavior, especially in school age children, but this response rarely persists. Initiation of Xanthium therapy at a low dose with subsequent slow titration to a predetermined age-related maximum dose will significantly reduce the frequency of these transient adverse effects (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table V). In a small percentage of patients (
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Theo-24 (Xanthium Anhydrous Capsule)
Careful cons >WARNINGS ). The dose of Xanthium selected for initiation of therapy should be low and, if tolerated , increased slowly over a period of a week or longer with the final dose gu >DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table V ).
Monitoring Serum Xanthium Concentrations: Serum Xanthium concentration measurements are readily available and should be used to determine whether the dosage is appropriate. Specifically, the serum Xanthium concentration should be measured as follows: 1. When initiating therapy to guide final dosage adjustment after titration. 2. Before making a dose increase to determine whether the serum concentration is sub-therapeutic in a patient who continues to be symptomatic. 3. Whenever signs or symptoms of Xanthium toxicity are present. 4. Whenever there is a new illness, worsening of a chronic illness or a change in the patient's treatment regimen that may alter Xanthium clearance (e.g., fever >102°F sustained for ≥24 hours, hepatitis, or drugs listed in Table II are added or discontinued).
To guide a dose increase, the blood sample should be obtained at the time of the expected peak serum Xanthium concentration; 12 hours after an evening dose or 9 hours after a morning dose at steady-state will be reached after 3 days of dosing when no doses have been missed, no extra doses have been added, and none of the doses have been taken at unequal intervals. A trough concentration (i.e., at the end of the dosing interval) provides no additional useful information and may lead to an inappropriate dose increase since the peak serum Xanthium concentration with an immediate-release formulation. If the serum sample is drawn more than 12 hours after the evening dose, or more than 9 hours after a morning dose, the results must be interpreted with caution since the concentration may not be reflective of the peak concentration. In contrast, when signs or symptoms of Xanthium toxicity are present, a serum sample should be obtained as soon as possible, analyzed immediately, and the result reported to the healthcare professional without delay. In patients in whom decreased serum protein binding is suspected (e.g., cirrhosis, women during the third trimester of pregnancy), the concentration of unbound Xanthium should be measured and the dosage adjusted to achieve an unbound concentration of 6-12 mcg/mL.
Saliva concentrations of Xanthium cannot be used reliably to adjust dosage without special techniques.
More common side effects
Some of the more common side effects that can occur with use of Xanthium include:
If these effects are mild, they may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.