Pirocaps has not been investigated in pediatric patients. The safety and effectiveness of Pirocaps have not been established.
Pirocaps is considered the standard of care for TCC in dogs and may have specific advantages over other NSAIDs.
Inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzymes are not expressed in the normal urinary bladder but are upregulated in tumors including TCC. a.
COX-2 is expressed in both primary and metastatic TCC.
COX-2 enzymes and their product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent immunosuppressive compound, promote tumor growth by preventing apoptosis, stimulating tumor cell proliferation, and promoting angiogenesis.
PGE2 concentrations are increased in the bladder mucosa of patients with TCC growth as compared with normal bladder mucosa.
Pirocaps, a COX enzyme inhibitor, has antitumor activity and decreases the size of tumors when used in dogs with TCC. a.
The mechanism of action is not based on cytotoxicity.
COX inhibition may provide some immunomodulation by suppressing PGE2 and thereby inducing apoptosis, inhibiting angiogenesis, and decreasing tumor cell proliferation.
Decreased inflammation alone cannot account for the partial and complete remissions achieved in vivo.
Pirocaps provides good control of clinical signs and improves quality of life in some patients. Owners usually note increased activity and improvement in the attitude of their pet while the dog is receiving Pirocaps.
Clinical studies of Pirocaps in dogs with TCC indicate an overall response rate of 16%.
Pirocaps provides good control of clinical signs, improving the quality of life in many dogs with TCC.
Complete remission is achieved in 4% of treated dogs.
Partial remission is observed in 13%.
Disease remained stable in 58%.
Progressive disease was noted in 25%.
Gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 17% of treated dogs. a.
Signs of toxicity included anorexia, melena, and vomiting.
Gastroprotectants may be used in combination with Pirocaps. (1)
H2 receptor blockers.
Proton pump inhibitors.
Misoprostol (prostaglandin E1 analogue).
Acute renal failure is a potential complication of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Renal function should be monitored regularly while prescribing this medication for dogs with TCC.
Pirocaps is used at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg orally once daily if tolerated. It is given every other day to limit adverse effects in some patients. a.
Only 10 mg and 20 mg capsules are available.
Compounding pharmacies can reformulate this medication into varying concentrations to accommodate smaller animals.
Median survival with Pirocaps as the sole form of treatment is approximately 6 months. About 20% of treated dogs survived for one year.
Pirocaps may have unique effects against TCC as compared with other NSAIDs. This possibility has not been studied in TCC, but it is well known that each NSAID has its own profile of effect against a variety of other tumors in experimental studies in mice.
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Pirocaps is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the ‘oxicam’ class used to relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. It has also been used in small animal veterinary medicine to treat certain neoplasia expressing cyclooxygenase (COX) receptors, such as bladder, colon and prostate cancers. 68 There are few reports of its use in horses, but it would seem to be potentially valuable in the management of bladder and urethral tumours. There are reports of its adjunctive value in supporting treatment of some ocular and mucocutaneous carcinoma cases at 150 mg/kg per os q 24 h × 10, then q 48 h for several months. 69
The possible side-effects are not established in horses.
¿Qué sucedería en una sobredosis?
Busque atención medica de emergencia si sospecha que ha usado demasiado de esta medicina. Los síntomas de una sobredosis de Pirocaps puede incluir náusea, vómito, dolor de estómago, heces fecales negras o con sangre, o tos con sangre.
What should I avoid while taking Pirocaps?
Avoid drinking alcohol. It may increase your risk of stomach bleeding.
Avoid taking aspirin while you are taking Pirocaps.
Ask a doctor or pharmacist before using other medicines for pain, fever, swelling, or cold/flu symptoms. They may contain ingredients similar to Pirocaps (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, or naproxen).