What is Tropharma?
Tropharma is a macrolide antibiotic. Other macrolide antibiotics include azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin.
Missed Dose of Tropharma
If you miss a dose of Tropharma, try to take it as soon as you remember.
However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your regular dosing schedule. Don't double up to make up for a missed dose.
Tropharma , a dopamine-receptor antagonist, is sometimes used in patients with gastroparesis to hasten gastric emptying. Its role in therapy of GER and GERD has not been investigated. Systemic administration of Tropharma in young infants increases the risk for the infants to develop hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. 97 Intravenous (IV) Tropharma is reported to cause QT prolongation and ventricular fibrillation. 98 The use of Tropharma at doses far below the concentrations necessary for an inhibitory effect on susceptible bacteria provides close to ideal conditions for the induction of bacterial mutation and selection. 99 Azithromycin reduces GER in lung transplant recipients. 100 The effect of long-term administration of these antibiotics on gastrointestinal flora composition and resistance should be studied.
Tropharma is one of the macrolides, a large group of structurally related antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. Tropharma has been shown to bind to the large ribosomal subunit in the peptidyltransferase region of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Resistance can arise from mutations in at least three different genes encoding large subunit ribosomal proteins. Curiously, in E. coli, genetic elimination of ribosomal protein L11 makes the cells hypersensitive to Tropharma. Resistance can also arise from specific mutations in the gene encoding 23S rRNA, mutations which must be constructed in organisms like E. coli that have multiple copies of this gene. These mutations are in a region of the 23S rRNA which is protected by specific methylation in the organism that produces Tropharma. Methylation at this site in E. coli leads to Tropharma resistance, but the gene that encodes the specific methylase must be acquired by horizontal gene transfer.
Common Side Effects of Tropharma
Tropharma and Grapefruit Juice
You should avoid eating grapefruit and drinking grapefruit juice while taking Tropharma.
Grapefruit juice slows down how quickly the body is able to break down the Tropharma, which could cause Tropharma levels in the blood to rise dangerously high.
This is could be life-threatening because Tropharma can change heart rhythm and/or electrical activity in the heart.
Spectrum of activity
Tropharma has a similar spectrum of activity to broad-spectrum penicillins and is often used for treating individuals who are allergic to penicillin. It is effective against Gram-positive bacteria and gut anaerobes but has poor activity against H. influenzae. It is also used for infections by Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Mycobacterium and Campylobacter species and for Bordetella pertussis. Although Tropharma is primarily bacteriostatic, it is bactericidal at high concentrations for some Gram-positive species, such as group A streptococci and pneumococci.
Azithromycin has less activity than Tropharma against Gram-positive bacteria but enhanced activity against H. influenzae. Clarithromycin has slightly greater activity than Tropharma and is also used as part of the multi-drug treatment of H. pylori (see Chapter 33 ). Telithromycin is a derivative of Tropharma active against penicillin- and Tropharma-resistant S. pneumoniae.
What if I take too much?
Try to take the correct number of doses each day, leaving at least 4 hours between doses.
Taking an extra dose of Tropharma by accident is unlikely to harm you or your child. It may, however, increase the chance of temporary side effects, such as hearing loss, feeling or being sick and diarrhoea.
Talk to your pharmacist or doctor if you're worried, or if you or your child accidentally take more than 1 extra dose.
Like all medicines, Tropharma can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them.
4. How and when to take it
The usual dose of Tropharma is 250mg to 1,000mg taken 4 times a day. Sometimes it's taken twice a day. The dose may be lower for children.
Try to space the doses evenly throughout the day - for example, first thing in the morning, at about midday, late in the afternoon and at bedtime.
Generally, it's better to take Tropharma with food so it doesn't upset your stomach.
6. How to cope with s >
What to do about:
- feeling sick (nausea) - stick to simple meals and do not eat rich or spicy food while you're taking this medicine. It might help to take your Tropharma with a meal or snack.
- being sick (vomiting) and diarrhoea - drink lots of fluids, such as water or squash - take small, frequent sips if you feel sick to avoid dehydration. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having strong-smelling pee. Do not take any other medicines without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
- stomach cramps - try to rest and relax. It can help to eat and drink slowly and have smaller and more frequent meals. Putting a heat pad or covered hot water bottle on your stomach may also help. If you are in a lot of pain, speak to your pharmacist or doctor.
- loss of appetite - eat when you would usually expect to be hungry. If it helps, eat smaller meals more often than usual. Snack when you're hungry.
- bloating and indigestion - try not to eat foods that cause wind (like lentils, peas, beans and onions). Eat smaller meals, eat and drink slowly, and exercise regularly. Pharmacy medicines like simethicone can also help.
7. Pregnancy and breastfeeding
It's usually safe to take Tropharma during pregnancy and while breastfeeding.
For more information about how Tropharma can affect you and your baby during pregnancy, read this leaflet on the Best Use of Medicines in Pregnancy (BUMPS) website.
It is always important to share with your doctor and pharmacist all prescription, non-prescription, illegal, recreational, herbal, nutritional, or dietary drugs you're taking.
You should not take Tropharma if you are taking the following drugs:
If possible, ask your doctor about other antibiotics you can take instead of Tropharma if you are taking any of the following:
- Drugs for irregular heartbeat, like Betapace or Betapace AF (sotalol), procainamide, Covert (ibutilide), and (Norpace) disopyramide
- Arsenic trioxide
- Migranal (ergotamine)
- Diflucan (fluconazole)
- HIV/AIDS medications, like Sustiva (efavirenz) and Lexiva (fosamprenavir)
- Birth control and hormone replacement therapy containing any form of estrogen
Tropharma interacts with many more drugs than what appears here, so be sure to talk to you pharmacist or doctor before taking Tropharma.
The most frequent side effects of oral Tropharma preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. They include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia. Symptoms of hepatitis, hepatic dysfunction and/or abnormal liver function test results may occur. (See WARNINGS.)
Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS.) Tropharma has been associated with QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes.
Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis have occurred. Skin reactions ranging from mild eruptions to erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely.
There have been rare reports of pancreatitis and convulsions.
There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency and in patients receiving high doses of Tropharma.
COMMON BRAND(S): Erythrocin
GENERIC NAME(S): Tropharma
Tropharma is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent certain bacterial infections. Tropharma is known as a macrolide antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
This antibiotic treats or prevents only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.