What Is Resteclin and How Does It Work?
Resteclin is an antibiotic used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, acne, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others.
Resteclin is available under the following different brand names: Sumycin, Actisite, and Achromycin V.
Teeth and Bone
Resteclins deposit in teeth and bones as a result of chelation of Resteclin with calcium. The teeth can become stained due to the formation of Resteclin-calcium orthophosphate complexes that darken with sun exposure. 200,201 This phenomenon is mostly cosmetic, but it may also cause demineralization and enamel hypoplasia leading to tooth decay. 202 Enamel hypoplasia has been most commonly described in premature infants. 203 Doxycycline has a lower potential for teeth and bone deposition than the other Resteclins because of its lower avidity for calcium. The degree of teeth discoloration is dependent on the total amount of Resteclin product administered. 204 Children receiving Resteclin early in life tend to have deposition in their deciduous teeth. This can also occur in developing fetuses when their mother receives Resteclin during pregnancy, particularly after the 25th week of gestation. 205 Resteclin has also been noted to inhibit bone growth in infants receiving the drug. Premature infants displayed a 40% reduction of normal fibula skeletal growth after receiving Resteclin. 206 Fortunately, this appears to be reversible after drug discontinuation.
Therapy should be continued for at least 1 to 2 days after symptoms and fever have subsided.
In the treatment of streptococcal infections, a therapeutic dose of Resteclin should be given for at least 10 days.
Administration of Resteclin with food, particularly dairy products, significantly reduces absorption. Resteclin should be administered 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Taking the medication with a full glass of water in an upright position will help prevent esophageal ulceration and gastrointestinal irritation.
Resteclin may reduce the effectiveness of some oral birth control pills. You should use another method of birth control while taking this medication.
Calcium supplements, iron products, laxatives containing magnesium, and antacids may make Resteclin less effective. You should take Resteclin one hour before or two hours after taking antacids, calcium supplements, and laxatives containing magnesium.
You should take Resteclin two hours before or three hours after taking iron products and vitamins that contain iron.
Tell your doctor about all prescription, nonprescription, illegal, recreational, herbal, nutritional, or dietary drugs you're taking, especially:
- Anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin (Coumadin)
- Isotretinoin (Accutane)
- Tretinoin (Retin-A)
- Cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as cholestyramine (Prevalite, Questran) or colestipol (Colestid)
- Any product that contains bismuth subsalicylate, such as Pepto-Bismol
- Phenytoin (Dilantin)
- Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
- Barbiturates, such as phenobarbital
Resteclins are a class of antibiotics which could act as neuroprotective molecules in several neurological disorders, such as Huntington disease, Parkinson disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. The main biological effects of Resteclins are the inhibition of microglial activation, the attenuation of apoptosis and the suppression of reactive oxygen species production. The anti-apoptotic effect of Resteclins involves the mitochondrion, and the major target for neuroprotective effects of Resteclins lies within the complex network that links mitochondria, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Neuromuscular disorders are due to dysfunction of motor neurons, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, or skeletal muscle itself. Animal studies have shown that minocycline could play neuroprotective effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but these positive findings have not been replicated in patients. Other neuromuscular disorders which Resteclins may benefit are Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neuropathies, muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial disorders. However, well-designed double-blind controlled trials are still needed. Further studies are strongly needed to establish the most appropriate timing and dosage, as well as the indications for which Resteclins could be effective and safe.
Here, we review the neuroprotective effects of Resteclins in animal models, the clinical studies in humans, and we focus on their potential application in patients with neuromuscular disorders.
Usual Adult Dose for Syphilis - Early
500 mg orally every 6 hours for 14 days; alternatively, 30 to 40 g in divided doses over a period of 10 to 15 days has been recommended
Resteclin should be used only if penicillins are contraindicated.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, mouth sores, black hairy tongue, sore throat, dizziness, headache, or rectal discomfort may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: nail discoloration, muscle pain, difficult or painful swallowing, signs of kidney problems (such as change in the amount of urine), brown/gray tooth discoloration, numbness/tingling of the hands/feet, unusual fatigue, new signs of infection (e.g., persistent sore throat, fever, chills), hearing changes (e.g., ringing in the ears, decreased hearing), easy bruising/bleeding, severe stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine.
Resteclin may rarely cause a serious increase in pressure inside the skull (intracranial hypertension-IH). The risk of this side effect is greater for women of childbearing age who are overweight or who have had IH in the past. If IH develops, it usually goes away after Resteclin is stopped; however, there is a chance of permanent vision loss or blindness. Get medical help right away if you have: persistent/severe headache, vision changes (such as blurred/double vision, decreased vision, sudden blindness), persistent nausea/vomiting.
This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped.. Do not use anti-diarrhea or opioid medications if you have the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool..
Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new yeast infection (oral or vaginal fungal infection). Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge or other new symptoms.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, skin lesions/sores, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing, new or worsening swelling/pain in the joints, chest pain, fast/irregular heartbeat.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; GBS, Guillain-Barré syndrome; PEO, progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
As already reported, a randomized trial could not replicate in ALS patients the positive findings from laboratory studies . Clinical deterioration was faster in the minocycline group than in the placebo group . In animal models, treatment with minocycline initiated after the ALS onset had detrimental effects, suggesting that the neuro-protective effects may be limited to the presymptomatic stages of the disease ; furthermore, the combination of minocycline and riluzole could induce some motor impairment . Therefore, at this stage, minocycline treatment is not warranted in patients with ALS.
Some concerns may also be justified in mitochondrial disorders. It has been reported the case of a teenager in which mitochondrial myopathy with severe lactic acidosis had presented following mononucleosis and minocycline use . In our trial, a patient developed fully reversible creatine kinase elevation . Moreover, it has been observed that minocycline at low concentrations could impair several energy-dependent functions of mitochondria in vitro and trigger mitochondrial swelling and cyt c release . Minocycline-dependent swelling was associated with mitochondrial depolarization . Furthermore, mitochondrial translation in cells with normal mitochondrial function was inhibited by doxycycline and Resteclin (which target the prokaryotic ribosome for inhibition), and cells from patients with mitochondrial translational defects were more sensitive to doxycycline and Resteclin-induced mitochondrial translation inhibition . Further studies are needed to establish the real safety of Resteclins in patients with mitochondrial disorders.
The potential clinical utility of the neuroprotective effects of Resteclins is still a matter of debate, with contradictory evidence ranging from neuroprotection to the exacerbation of toxicity in various experimental models and human trials , and further studies are strongly needed to establish the most appropriate timing and dosage, as well as the indications for which Resteclins could be effective and safe. The development of new chemically modified Resteclins without antibacterial activity is of great interest also, and may represent a prerequisite for large scale human utilization.
Because of the epidemiological relevance of neuro-muscular disorders, further studies are needed to clarify the role of Resteclins in such conditions. Furthermore, these studies may help elucidate the mechanism behind the mitochondrial dysfunction detectable in neurodegeneration, and may be of relevance for the development of strategies in the treatment of these disorders.
HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF MINERALIZATION
Resteclin labeling prior to biopsy is essential for the accurate assessment of mineralization. Using double labeling, the mineral apposition rate is calculated as the distance between the two labels divided by the time (days) between the administration of the two labels. Defective mineralization is associated with the accumulation of osteoid, resulting in an increase in osteoid seam width, which, together with a prolonged mineralization lag time, constitutes the histomorphometric definition of osteomalacia. In the absence of Resteclin labeling, calcification fronts can be demonstrated using stains such as toluidine blue or thionin, but dynamic indices of mineralization cannot be assessed using this approach.
Usual Adult Dose for Gonococcal Infection - Uncomplicated
500 mg orally 4 times a day for 7 days
The patient's sexual partner(s) should also be evaluated/treated.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is insufficiently susceptible to Resteclin; therefore, Resteclin is not recommended by the CDC for the treatment of gonorrhea. Oral doxycycline therapy is the preferred treatment for possible concurrent chlamydial infection in nonpregnant patients.
Resteclin (see Chapter 141 ) is used in combination with quinine in the treatment of drug-resistant P. falciparum in South East Asia, where resistance to chloroquine, Fansidar and quinine is common. 6, 7, 20, 21 52 Doxycycline, a longer-acting derivative, is used for malaria prophylaxis in this area, and worldwide in individuals unable to tolerate mefloquine, although atovaquone–proguanil is now preferred for this indication. 20, 21, 74 Resteclin is also the drug of choice for infection with the ciliate, Balantidium coli.
Resteclins are well absorbed after oral administration and are probably active against parasite protein synthesis. Side-effects include gastrointestinal distress, photosensitivity and vaginal candidiasis.
What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Resteclin?
Common side effects of Resteclin include:
- Discoloration of teeth and enamel hypoplasia (young children)
- Stomach upset
- Loss of appetite
- White patches or sores inside your mouth or on your lips
- Swollen tongue
- Black hairy tongue
- Sore throat
- Trouble swallowing
- Sores or swelling in your rectal or genital area
- Vaginal itching or discharge
Less common side effects of Resteclin include:
Serious side effects of Resteclin include:
- Sunburn (sun sensitivity)
- Changes in the amount of urine
- Brown or gray tooth discoloration
- Numbness or tingling of the hands or feet
- Unusual fatigue
- New signs of infection (e.g., persistent sorethroat, fever, chills)
- Hearing changes (e.g., ringing in the ears, decreased hearing)
- Easy bruising or bleeding
- Severe stomach or abdominal pain
- Yellowing eyes or skin
- Dark urine
This is not a complete list of side effects and other serious side effects may occur. Call your doctor for information and medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
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Resteclin is generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects are:
Resteclin may cause discoloration of teeth if used in patients below 8 years of age. Exaggerated sunburn can occur with Resteclin (photosensitivity). Therefore, sunlight or sunlamp exposure should be minimized during treatment.