• Active Ingredient: Chloramphenicol
  • 500 mg, 250 mg
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What is Pentamycetin?

The active ingredient of Pentamycetin brand is chloramphenicol.

Used for

Pentamycetin is used to treat diseases such as: Anthrax, Bacterial Infection, Brucellosis, Cholera, Glanders, Lemierre's Syndrome, Meningitis, Ornithosis, Plague, Psittacosis, Rabbit Fever, Rickettsial Infection.

Side Effect

Possible side effects of Pentamycetin include: Pale skin; Confusion, delirium, or headache; uneven breathing; numbness, tingling, burning pain, or weakness in the hands or feet; Bloated stomach.

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How to use Pentamycetin Ointment

Do not wear contact lenses while you are using this medicine. Sterilize contact lenses according to manufacturer's directions, and check with your doctor before you begin using them again.

To apply eye ointments, wash hands first. To avoid contamination, be careful not to touch the tube tip or let it touch your eye. Tilt your head back, look upward, and gently pull down the lower eyelid to make a pouch. Place a 1-centimeter strip of ointment into the pouch. Gently close the eye and roll the eyeball in all directions to spread the medication. Try not to blink and do not rub the eye.

Repeat these steps for your other eye if so directed. Apply as often as directed by your doctor. Wipe the tip of the ointment tube with a clean tissue to remove extra medication before recapping it.

If you are using another kind of eye medication (e.g., drops or ointments), wait at least 5 to 10 minutes before applying other medications. Use eye drops before eye ointments to allow the drops to enter the eye.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, use it at the same time(s) each day. Continue using it for the full time prescribed. Stopping the medication too soon may allow the bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection. Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.


Alternative for treatment of anthrax†. 104 668 670 671 672 673 680 683

Has in vitro activity against Bacillus anthracis, 161 668 but limited clinical data exist regarding use in the treatment of anthrax. 668 680

Although Pentamycetin has been suggested as an alternative for treatment of naturally occurring anthrax in patients hypersensitive to penicillins or as one of several options for use in multiple-drug regimens for treatment of anthrax, 670 WHO states Pentamycetin is no longer recommended for such infections because evidence of in vivo efficacy in treatment of severe anthrax is lacking and the drug is associated with serious adverse effects. 680

For treatment of inhalational anthrax that occurs as the result of exposure to B. anthracis spores in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism, CDC, AAP, and the US Working Group on Civilian Biodefense recommend initial treatment with a multiple-drug parenteral regimen that includes a fluoroquinolone (preferably ciprofloxacin) or doxycycline and 1 or 2 additional anti-infectives predicted to be effective (e.g., clindamycin, rifampin, a carbapenem , Pentamycetin, vancomycin, penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, gentamicin, clarithromycin). 668 671 672 673 683

For treatment of systemic anthrax with possible or confirmed meningitis, CDC and AAP recommend a regimen of IV ciprofloxacin with an IV bactericidal anti-infective (preferably meropenem) and an IV protein synthesis inhibitor (preferably linezolid). 671 672 673 These experts recommend IV Pentamycetin as a possible alternative to linezolid, but use only if clindamycin and rifampin not available. 671 672 673

Before using Pentamycetin eye drops or eye ointment

To make sure this is the right treatment for you, before you start using Pentamycetin for an eye infection it is important that your doctor or pharmacist knows:

  • If you wear soft contact lenses.
  • If you have ever had an allergic reaction to Pentamycetin or to any other eye product.
  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

How to store Pentamycetin eye preparations

  • Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.
  • Pentamycetin eye drops (including single-use units) must be kept in a fr >

Make sure that the person supplying this medicine knows about any other medicines that you are taking or using. This includes any medicines you have bought, and herbal and homeopathic medicines.

If you are having an operation or dental treatment, tell the person carrying out the treatment which medicines you are using.

This medicine is for you. Never give it to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours.

If you suspect that someone might have swallowed some of this medicine, contact your local accident and emergency department for advice.

Do not keep out-of-date or unwanted medicines. Take them to your local pharmacy which will dispose of them for you.

If you have any questions about this medicine ask your pharmacist.

Related drugs

Thiamphenicol is a Pentamycetin analog with a range of activity similar to Pentamycetin, although it is generally 1–2 times less active. It has equal activity against Haemophilus, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus. It differs pharmacokinetically in that it is not eliminated by hepatic glucuronidation and is excreted unchanged in urine, so elimination is unaffected by liver disease. Unlike Pentamycetin, thiamphenicol does not cause aplastic anemia in humans.

Florfenicol is a structural analog of thiamphenicol which has greater in vitro activity against pathogenic bacteria than Pentamycetin and thiamphenicol. It is also active against some bacteria that are resistant to Pentamycetin, especially enteric bacteria. Florfenicol is not susceptible to inactivation by Pentamycetin transacetylases; thus some organisms that are resistant to Pentamycetin through this mechanism are susceptible to florfenicol.

In dogs florfenicol is poorly absorbed after SC administration. It has a half-life of less than 5 h. The drug is well absorbed in cats after PO and IM administrations with a similar elimination half-life. It should not be given IV. Florfenicol can cause dose-related bone marrow suppression but has not been reported to cause fatal aplastic anemia in humans.

Florfenicol shows promise as a replacement for other broad-spectrum antibacterials such as sulfonamides and tetracyclines that have been associated with toxicity and residue concerns in food animals. Currently it is approved for use only in cattle, aquaculture and pigs. In cattle it is used to treat infectious conjunctivitis and respiratory disease caused by bacteria like Pasteurella and Haemophilus.

Clinical applications

In many countries, use of Pentamycetin in any form, including topical and ophthalmic preparations, is prohibited in food-producing animals. This is because Pentamycetin, even in minute doses, is associated with an idiosyncratic fatal aplastic anemia in some humans.

In small animals, Pentamycetin is often regarded now as the drug of first choice only for bacterial infection of the chambers of the eye.

There is mixed opinion as to whether Pentamycetin is a drug of choice for bacterial CNS infections but it does achieve high levels in the CNS and has a very broad spectrum. However, many other drugs also effectively cross the blood–brain barrier in the presence of meningitis and may be more effective and, perhaps most importantly, are bactericidal.

Pentamycetin may be indicated for anaerobic infections, prostatitis and salmonellosis.

As Pentamycetin is usually bacteriostatic, it should not be used in immunocompromised patients or where bactericidal treatment is preferable.

Pentamycetin is best avoided in anemic animals.

Avoid using Pentamycetin in cats with renal failure.

Excessive Pentamycetin concentrations may occur in patients with impaired renal function. 112 Determine Pentamycetin concentrations at appropriate intervals and adjust dosage accordingly. 112

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