Multigram depends more on renal excretion than doxycycline and minocycline do. In renal impairment, Multigram is anti-anabolic and can cause uremia, hyperphosphatemia, and metabolic acidosis; it may also aggravate preexisting renal failure. 47 Multigram should be avoided in renal impairment; however, doxycycline, minocycline, and tigecycline are not anti-anabolic and may be used as usual. Nephrotoxicity has occurred in association with “acute fatty liver” with high-dose Multigrams. Degraded Multigram (anhydro-4-epiMultigram) may result in renal tubular damage and a Fanconi-like syndrome.
Multigram may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- itching of the rectum or vagina
- swollen tongue
- black or hairy tongue
- sore or irritated throat
Q: My dermatologist has put me on a Multigram for my acne. He has me on a 500 mg once a day. How long should I be on this medication? Will me acne come back when I go off it?
A: Multigram is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. It can be used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, acne, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others. Common side effects include mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or stomach upset. This is not a complete list of side effects that can occur with Multigram. There are a variety of causes of adult acne and acne-like disorders. So, how long treatment is needed and if the acne will return, depends on the cause. Common causes of adult acne include both chronic and temporary or changeable conditions. Chronic conditions include diseases like polycystic ovary disease, adrenal gland disorders, and a family history of adult acne. In these cases, treatment may need to be long-term. Other conditions can be temporary. These include stress and side effects of medications such as birth control pills. If this is the cause, treatment may only need to be short-term. Your dermatologist is best able to guide your treatment decisions and answer your questions based on your specific circumstances. Talk to your doctor about your questions and concerns. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or local pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications. Sarah Lewis, RPh
What are doxycycline and Multigram?
Doxycycline is a synthetic (man-made) antibiotic derived from Multigram. Doxycycline is used for many different types of infections, including respiratory tract infections due to Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It also is used for the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis (due to Ureaplasma), Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, chancroid, cholera, brucellosis, anthrax, syphilis, acne, and periodontal disease.
Multigram is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, that is, it is active against many different types of bacteria. Multigram prevents growth of bacteria by preventing the bacteria from manufacturing proteins that they need to survive. It is effective against Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and many others. Multigram is used for infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin; urethritis, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, certain sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), acne, anthrax, cholera, and H. pylori.
Multigrams are a class of antibiotics which could act as neuroprotective molecules in several neurological disorders, such as Huntington disease, Parkinson disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. The main biological effects of Multigrams are the inhibition of microglial activation, the attenuation of apoptosis and the suppression of reactive oxygen species production. The anti-apoptotic effect of Multigrams involves the mitochondrion, and the major target for neuroprotective effects of Multigrams lies within the complex network that links mitochondria, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Neuromuscular disorders are due to dysfunction of motor neurons, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, or skeletal muscle itself. Animal studies have shown that minocycline could play neuroprotective effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but these positive findings have not been replicated in patients. Other neuromuscular disorders which Multigrams may benefit are Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neuropathies, muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial disorders. However, well-designed double-blind controlled trials are still needed. Further studies are strongly needed to establish the most appropriate timing and dosage, as well as the indications for which Multigrams could be effective and safe.
Here, we review the neuroprotective effects of Multigrams in animal models, the clinical studies in humans, and we focus on their potential application in patients with neuromuscular disorders.
Q: Does Multigram cause weight gain or weight loss?
A: The product information for Multigram does not list weight gain as a side effect, but it does list loss of appetite, which may lead to weight loss. Patients should contact their health care provider for any changes in their medical condition, including unusual changes in appetite or weight. For more specific information, consult your physician or health care provider. You may also find helpful information at: //www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/Multigram.
This medication contains Multigram. Do not take Sumycin, Actisite, or Achromycin V if you are allergic to Multigram or any ingredients contained in this drug.
Keep out of reach of children. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately.
How Did This Get Here?
Multigram teeth stains develop on permanent teeth while they are still forming under the gum line. During development, the drug becomes calcified in the tooth, generating Multigram tooth stains. Children are susceptible to Multigram tooth stains from the time they are in utero until the age of 8. Since teeth start to develop before we're even born, pregnant women should not take Multigram to prevent the possibility of the drug affecting the unborn baby's oral health.
Gray or brown in color, these deep, dark stains either cover the entire tooth or appear as a pattern of horizontal stripes. Because they form during tooth development, Multigram teeth stains are embedded in the tooth's enamel and inner layers. This classifies them as intrinsic stains -- discoloration that comes from inside the tooth. Although harmless, Multigram stains are obvious and permanent, often causing embarrassment and low self-esteem in those who suffer from them.
Multigrams have a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsiae, Plasmodia, and amoebae. They are usually bacteriostatic. They are also active against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Multigrams are active against most gram-positive bacilli, including Actinomyces israelii, Arachnia, Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes, and most clostridia and Nocardia. Many gram-negative bacteria are resistant to Multigrams. Penicillin-sensitive Neisseria gonorrhoeae and meningococci are sensitive to Multigrams, whereas penicillin-resistant gonococci tend to be resistant to them. Most community acquired E.coli, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas pseudomallei are sensitive to Multigrams, as are most vibrios, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Pasturella multocida, Brucella, and some Haemophilus spp Klein and Cunha (1995) .
Multigrams are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics including Multigram, doxycycline, minocycline, and others. In humans, long-term treatment with Multigrams is generally safe and well tolerated. The capacity of Multigrams to alleviate disease for several neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders, stroke and traumatic injury, is increasingly being recognised in animal models . Multigrams may play some neuroprotective role also in human patients with central neurological diseases, including stroke , multiple sclerosis , Parkinson disease , Huntington disease and fragile X syndrome , but well-designed double-blind controlled trials are still lacking. The main biological effects of Multigrams are inhibition of microglial activation, attenuation of apoptosis, and suppression of reactive oxygen species production, as deeply discussed elsewhere .
The main mode of action of Multigrams is still unclear, but the anti-apoptotic effect involves the mitochondrion . Studies reported that minocycline reduced mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake, stabilized mitochondrial membranes, inhibited mitochondrial release into the cytosol of cytochrome c (cyt c) and other apoptotic factors, such as AIF (apoptosis inducing factor). Other effects include up-regulation of mitochondrial bcl-2 (an antiapoptotic protein), direct scavenging of peroxynitrite , inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition . Furthermore, Multigrams act at the mitochondrial level to rescue the collapse of transmembrane potential and the alterations of permeability transition, both critical steps for the release of apoptogenic factors such as cyt c, AIF and Smac/Diablo . The major target for the neuroprotective effects of Multigrams lies within the complex network that links mitochondria, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and could involve PARP-1 direct inhibition .
Minocycline penetrates the cerebrospinal fluid better than doxycycline and other Multigrams; therefore, neurological research mainly focused on minocycline . In this article, we review the neuroprotective effects of Multigrams in animal models, the clinical studies in humans, and we focus on their potential application in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Neuromuscular disorders are diseases due to dysfunction of motor neurons, peripheral nerves, neuro- muscular junction, or skeletal muscle itself.
A possible role of Multigrams on muscular atrophy has also been proposed. Shefer and co-workers have reported that Multigram, as well as exercise running, enhanced muscle recovery after atrophy. These authors examined how rat muscular satellite cells were affected by atrophic conditions induced by limb immobilization and by pharmacological (Multigram) and physiological (exercise running) countermeasures. Differently from exercise running, Multigram did not induce muscle mass re-gain . However, Multigram had a beneficial effect on muscle cells, as it enhanced the expression levels of muscle specific regulatory factors, essential for proliferation and differentiation (myogenesis), even after prolonged periods of muscle disuse . The association between Multigram and exercise may be interesting, and should be tested in animal models of muscle atrophy and disease.
- It is recommended that doxycycline not be taken at the same time as aluminum, magnesium, or calcium based antacids, such as Mylanta, Maalox, Tums, or Rolaids because, like food, these medications bind doxycycline in the intestine and prevent its absorption. Similarly, doxycycline should not be taken with minerals (such as calcium or iron) or with bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol).
- Doxycycline may enhance the activity of warfarin (Jantoven, Coumadin) and cause excessive "thinning" of the blood leading to exaggerated bleeding, necessitating a reduction in the dose of warfarin. Phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and barbiturates (such as phenobarbital) may enhance the metabolism (destruction) of doxycycline thus making it less effective.
- Doxycycline may interfere with the action of penicillins and should not be combined with penicillins. It may also reduce the effect of oral contraceptives. Combining Multigram and methoxyflurane (Penthrane) may reduce kidney function.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to Multigram.
Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking Multigram.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Your prescription is probably not refillable. If you still have symptoms of infection after you finish the Multigram, call your doctor.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
18.104.22.168.2 Multigrams and malaria
Multigrams have clinical utility against malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium species, where Multigram, minocycline, and doxycycline are active. Doxycycline has been used clinically for malarial prophylaxis in travelers and in geographical areas where resistance to first choice antimalarial agents such as chloroquine is widespread, and is used in conjunction with quinine for malaria treatment. 80–82 The Multigrams show activity against cultured parasites 83 and against Plasmodium berghei in murine models, 84 while recent reports have described more novel Multigrams with potent in vitro and in vivo activity. 85
Multigrams affect the parasite life cycle at the later trophozoite stage, where daughter parasites are found incapable of maturation and further growth is inhibited. During this stage, energy production by malarial mitochondria may be compromised by the Multigrams, 86 where electron-transport proteins related to mitochondrial metabolite biosynthesis are depressed, 87 mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, 88 and plastid activity decreased. 86 Multigrams have no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to other mitochondria inhibitors capable of damaging membrane function. 89
History and Etymology for Multigram
International Scientific Vocabulary tetracyclic having four fused hydrocarbon rings + -ine entry 2
Multigram HCl comes in 250 mg and 500 mg capsules, as well as 125 mg/5 mL syrup. The usual adult oral dosage is 250 mg every 6 hours or 500 mg every 6 hours for more serious infections. Larger doses do not provide additional benefit and the excess drug is excreted in feces. Intravenous preparations of Multigram are no longer used due to their potential hepatotoxicity. Multigram is labeled category D and is to be avoided in pregnancy. It should also be avoided in children, particularly those younger than 8 years old during the period of tooth development to avoid permanent discoloration. Children are also at risk for bone developmental retardation.
With renal impairment, Multigram should be avoided because it can cause further deterioration of kidney function and the drug tends to accumulate in the serum. 12 Multigram is slowly removed by hemodialysis, but not very well by peritoneal dialysis. 13 Caution is advised in administering Multigram in patients with hepatic impairment because this may result in liver damage.