The most frequent side effects of oral Eritroveinte preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. They include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia. Symptoms of hepatitis, hepatic dysfunction and/or abnormal liver function test results may occur. (See WARNINGS.)
Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS.) Eritroveinte has been associated with QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes.
Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis have occurred. Skin reactions ranging from mild eruptions to erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely.
There have been rare reports of pancreatitis and convulsions.
There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency and in patients receiving high doses of Eritroveinte.
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Eritroveinte (Eritroveinte Tablets)
Serious allergic reaction
In rare cases, it's possible to have a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to Eritroveinte.
Eritroveinte eye ointment may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- redness, itching, stinging, or burning of the eye
Eritroveinte eye ointment may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while using this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).
184.108.40.206.3 Pharmacokinetic properties
Eritroveinte , like other macrolide antibiotics, is orally administered. Because of its acid instability, however, Eritroveinte exhibits high interindividual variability in oral bioavailability, with values ranging from 15% to 45%. The maximal plasma concentration after a typical 250–500 mg oral dose is achieved after approximately 4–5 h, and ranges from 0.3 to 3.5 μg mL −1 . Eritroveinte has a low volume of distribution (0.64 L kg −1 ), which contributes to its short half-life (approximately 1.4 h) and necessitates a frequent dosing schedule, typically 250 mg four times a day or 500 mg twice a day. Eritroveinte is metabolized in the liver, and its major metabolites are the demethylated product at the dimethylamino group, the N-oxide of the desosamine, and des-cladinose Eritroveinte, all of which have much reduced antibacterial potency. Eritroveinte and its metabolites are eliminated mainly in bile. In terms of tissue distribution, higher concentrations are found in tissues such as the lung and tonsils than in plasma. Like other macrolides, it accumulates in phagocytic cells. 158 Since phagocytic cells (macrophages) migrate to the site of infection and release the macrolide, this is considered to be significant in raising the local concentration of the antibiotic. Eritroveinte is 65–90% protein bound with α1-glycoprotein as the main binding partner. The key pharmacokinetic values are summarized in Table 1 . 159,160 As mentioned earlier, one serious drawback of Eritroveinte is its instability under acidic conditions such as those encountered in the stomach. With acid catalysis, Eritroveinte undergoes a series of transformations promoted by the proximity of functional groups and by the entropic factors. 161 Scheme 1 demonstrates the initial change that occurs, as an internal acetal develops and quickly loses a molecule of water to form a cyclic enol ether. These transformations irreversibly result in microbiologically inactive products. Due to this vulnerability, Eritroveinte's effectiveness is threatened by both low bioavailability and high interpatient variability. Enteric-coated tablets were developed with some success to protect Eritroveinte from degradation and to mask its bitter taste. 162
Table 1 . Oral pharmacokinetic properties of first- and second-generation macrolides
Eritroveinte (e rith" roe mye' sin) is a semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic used widely for many decades to treat mild-to-moderate bacterial infections caused by sensitive agents. Eritroveinte is bacteriostatic against many gram positive bacteria including many strains of streptococci, staphylococci, clostridia, corynebacteria, listeria, haemophilus sp., moxicella, and Neisseria meningitidis. Modifications of Eritroveinte have been developed with a wider range of activity and less likelihood for resistance (azithromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin). The macrolide antibiotics are believed to act by inhibiting protein synthesis of bacteria by binding to the 50S ribosomal element. Resistance occurs by several mechanisms. Eritroveinte was approved for use in the United States in 1967, and currently more than 1.5 million prescriptions are filled yearly. Specific indications include mild-to-moderate upper or lower respiratory tract infections, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, urogenital chlamydia infections, Legionnaires’ disease, and intestinal amebiasis. Eritroveinte is commonly used as a second-line agent when penicillin, tetracyclines or metronidazole are contraindicated. Eritroveinte is available in multiple formulations (estolate, ethylsuccinate, lactobionate, stearate) in many generic and brand name forms in capsules or tablets of 250 or 500 mg including enteric coated and delayed release forms. The usual adult dose is 1 to 4 grams daily in divided doses for 7 to 21 days, depending upon the type, nature and severity of the infection. Gastrointestinal side effects (abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea) are common, but are rarely severe.
Before taking Eritroveinte, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other macrolide antibiotics (such as azithromycin, clarithromycin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, liver disease, a certain type of muscle disease (myasthenia gravis).
Eritroveinte may cause a condition that affects the heart rhythm (QT prolongation). QT prolongation can rarely cause serious (rarely fatal) fast/irregular heartbeat and other symptoms (such as severe dizziness, fainting) that need medical attention right away.
The risk of QT prolongation may be increased if you have certain medical conditions or are taking other drugs that may cause QT prolongation. Before using Eritroveinte, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take and if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death).
Low levels of potassium or magnesium in the blood may also increase your risk of QT prolongation. This risk may increase if you use certain drugs (such as diuretics/"water pills") or if you have conditions such as severe sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. Talk to your doctor about using Eritroveinte safely.
Eritroveinte may cause live bacterial vaccines (such as typhoid vaccine) to not work as well. Do not have any immunizations/vaccinations while using this medication unless your doctor tells you to.
Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
Some Eritroveinte products may contain sodium. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information if you are on a salt-restricted diet or if you have a condition such as congestive heart failure that could be worsened by an increase in salt intake.
Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially hearing loss and QT prolongation (see above).
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication.
This medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
Anthrax is a deadly infectious disease that may be transmitted to humans by infected animals or by biological warfare. There are three types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax include a swollen glands, muscle ache, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a red-brown raised spot that enlarges, blisters, and hardens, forming an ulcer crater with black crust. Symptoms of inhalation anthrax are flu-like and may progress to respiratory distress, shock, coma, and death. Symptoms of gastrointestinal anthrax include loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment for cutaneous anthrax involves penicillin, tetracycline, Eritroveinte, and ciprofloxin. Inhalation anthrax necessitates treatment with IV therapy with antibiotics.
Before taking Eritroveinte,
Eritroveinte is a motilin receptor agonist (a G-protein-coupled receptor that stimulates contractions of smooth muscle in the gut) and has been used in the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis.
By Frieda Wiley, PharmD, CGP, RPh | Medically Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD
Latest Update: 2015-02-19 Copyright © 2014 Everyday Health Media, LLC
Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.
A product that may interact with this drug is: digoxin.
Many drugs besides Eritroveinte may affect the heart rhythm (QT prolongation), including amiodarone, dofetilide, cisapride, pimozide, procainamide, propafenone, quinidine, sotalol, among others.
Other medications can affect the removal of Eritroveinte from your body, which may affect how Eritroveinte works. Examples include azole antifungals (such as itraconazole, ketoconazole), certain calcium channel blockers (such as diltiazem, verapamil), certain anti-seizure medications (such as carbamazepine, phenytoin), quinupristin-dalfopristin, saquinavir, among others.
Eritroveinte can slow down the removal of other drugs from your body, which may affect how they work. Examples of affected drugs include bromocriptine, colchicine, certain benzodiazepines (such as midazolam, triazolam), eletriptan, ergot alkaloids (such as ergotamine, dihydroergotamine), certain drugs to treat erectile dysfunction-ED or pulmonary hypertension (such as sildenafil, tadalafil), certain "statin" drugs (such as lovastatin, simvastatin), vinblastine, among others.
Although most antibiotics are unlikely to affect hormonal birth control such as pills, patch, or ring, a few antibiotics (such as rifampin, rifabutin) can decrease their effectiveness. This could result in pregnancy. If you use hormonal birth control, ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details.
This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (urine tests), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.
COMMON BRAND(S): Erythrocin
GENERIC NAME(S): Eritroveinte
Eritroveinte is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent certain bacterial infections. Eritroveinte is known as a macrolide antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
This antibiotic treats or prevents only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.
8. Cautions with other medicines
There are some medicines that don't mix well with Eritroveinte.
Tell your doctor if you're taking these medicines before you start Eritroveinte:
- antihistamine medicines, such as astemizole, terfenadine or mizolastine
- an anti-sickness medicine called domperidone
- medicines for mental health problems called pimozide and amisulpride
- migraine medicines called ergotamine and dihrydroergotamine
- a cholesterol-lowering medicine called simvastatin
- a bladder weakness medicine called tolterodine
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to Eritroveinte.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Your prescription is probably not refillable. If you still have symptoms of infection after you finish the Eritroveinte, call your doctor.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
What are the uses for Eritroveinte?
Eritroveinte is used to treat:
- Streptococcal infections of the throat ("strep throat") and skin
- Lung infections, for example, pneumonia caused by streptococcal pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and legionella pneumophila (legionnaires disease)
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Whooping cough
- Intestinal amebiasis
It is used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections of the skin and as an alternative antibiotic for the treatment of syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.
Eritroveinte is used in patients who are allergic to penicillin for the prevention of recurrent rheumatic fever and infections of the hearts' valves (endocarditis) in patients with valvular abnormalities of the heart before they undergo dental treatments.
The non-FDA approved uses for Eritroveinte include acne, Lyme disease, and tetanus.