Interactions that can increase side effects
When Cliofar is used with certain drugs, it may result in more side effects. This is because the amount of Cliofar in your body may be increased. Examples of these drugs include:
- Drugs called CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole. These drugs may increase how much Cliofar your body absorbs.
Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs interact differently in each person, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible interactions. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your healthcare provider about possible interactions with all prescription drugs, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and over-the-counter drugs that you are taking.
This drug comes with several warnings.
Limitations and Caveats
Considerable research has been done on Cliofar. Some diseases have been better studied than others.
It is important to note that antibiotic treatment should always be personalized. Different areas of the world have different resistance patterns, meaning the effectiveness of Cliofar can vary greatly.
Cliofar’s role in preventing heart infections is not entirely clear. A large review of 36 studies found that the research supporting antibiotic prevention is limited and weak .
Due to the lack of strong evidence, the United Kingdom made new guidelines in 2008 to stop using antibiotics to prevent heart infections. A follow-up study was done to examine the effect of this change. Researchers found that antibiotic use dropped by
79%, but there was no significant increase in cases of heart infections
Cliofar can cause a severe allergic reaction. Symptoms can include:
- hives or other serious skin reactions, such as rash, peeling skin, or blisters
- trouble breathing
- swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat
Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room if you develop these symptoms. Don’t take this drug again if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to it. Taking it again could be fatal (cause death).Zimbelman J, Palmer A, Todd J. Improved outcome of Cliofar compared with beta-lactam antibiotic treatment for invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18(12):1096-100.
Comment: Retrospective case series of pediatric patients with S. pyogenes infection. Patients with deep infection were more likely to have a favorable outcome if initial treatment included Cliofar compared to beta-lactam alone (83% vs. 14%, p = 0.006) with a similar trend in those with superficial disease (83% vs. 48%, p = 0.07).Rating: Important
Q: What is the shelf life of Cliofar?
A: Cliofar is in a drug class called lincomycin antibiotics. Cliofar is used to treat certain serious bacterial infections -- when infections cannot be treated by certain other antibiotics. Cliofar is used to treat serious: respiratory tract infections; skin infections; blood infections; infections of female reproductive organs or other organs. Cliofar works by preventing or slowing the growth of bacteria. Cliofar does not kill viruses; thus, it is not effective for treating colds, flu, or infections not associated with bacteria. When Cliofar is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, it may be common to feel better early in the course of therapy; however, Cliofar should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Cliofar or other antibiotics in the future. Prescription medications are required by law in the United States to have expiration dates. The expiration date on a prescription drug, including Cliofar, is the last date the manufacturer can ensure the full potency and safety of the medication. Medications can lose their potency and effectiveness as time passes. There have been reports of medication being harmful after its expiration date. The expiration date is the date the medication should be discarded, according to the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP). For prescription medications, the expiration date may be on the prescription label. If a medication comes without a documented expiration date, the pharmacy where the medication was dispensed may be able to provide the expiration date. According to ISMP, if the expiration date is unknown, and it has been more than one year since the medication has been dispensed from the pharmacy, the medication should be discarded. Additionally, if the medication has been stored outside of recommended conditions (e.g., extreme temperatures, direct sunlight), the integrity of the medication may be compromised. Cliofar capsules should be stored at room temperature -- 68 - 77Â°F, according to prescribing information. Cliofar should be only be taken as prescribed and under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Derek Dore, PharmD
By Frieda Wiley, PharmD, CGP, RPh | Medically Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD
Latest Update: 2014-04-28 Copyright © 2014 Everyday Health Media, LLC
Can Cliofar cause problems?
Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below contains some of the most common ones associated with Cliofar. You will find a full list in the manufacturer's information leaflet supplied with your medicine. The unwanted effects often improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine, but speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following continue or become troublesome.
How does Cliofar work?
Cliofar works by preventing bacteria from producing proteins that are essential to them. Without these proteins the bacteria cannot grow, replicate and increase in numbers. The remaining bacteria die or are destroyed by the immune system. This clears up the infection.
Cliofar is active against a wide variety of Gram positive bacteria, including streptococci, pneumococci and staphylococci (including MRSA). It is also effective against a group of bacteria known collectively as anaerobic bacteria. This type of bacteria do not need oxygen to grow and multiply. Anaerobic bacteria can cause infections in areas of the body such as the bones, gut, pelvic cavity and gums.
To make sure the bacteria causing an infection are susceptible to Cliofar your doctor may take a tissue sample, for example a blood sample or swab from the skin.
What is Cliofar?
Cliofar is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body.
Cliofar is used to treat serious infections caused by bacteria.
Cliofar may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Q: How are the side effects of Cliofar treated?
A: Cliofar is an antibiotic that is used to treat serious infections caused by bacteria. Common side effects of Cliofar include changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, joint pain, rash, and itching. Cliofar can also cause a more serious side effect called pseudomembranous colitis, which is an infection of the large intestine that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Patients who develop diarrhea while taking Cliofar or any other antibiotic should be evaluated by their healthcare provider for appropriate treatment. It is also important to understand that although you may feel better quickly, Cliofar should be taken as directed for as long as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may not fully treat the infection and it could come back and be harder to treat. Michelle McDermott, PharmD
2) Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
Skin and soft tissue infections involve the skin, connective tissue under the skin, and muscles. Some are not a big health risk, such as minor wound infections. Others can be very serious and potentially fatal.
Two common forms that require antibiotics are impetigo and cellulitis. Cliofar is given only when the bacteria are highly resistant or in people with penicillin allergies. It is especially valuable in children, due to its good safety profile .
Animal bites can also cause skin and soft tissue infections. Cliofar is added on to other antibiotics, depending on the bacteria involved. Many of the bacteria found in animal bite wounds respond well to it .
Flesh-eating bacteria is a rare, serious disease that rapidly destroys the skin and muscles. Cliofar is a good choice because it blocks the production of bacterial toxins . In a study of 15 people, 93% of the bacteria that trigger this dangerous condition could be killed with a Cliofar-containing combination .
What is the dosage for oral Cliofar?
- The recommended dose for adults for serious infections is 150 to 450 mg every 6 to 8 hours up to a maximum dose of 1.8 grams per day.
- For pediatric patients the recommended dose is 8 to 20 mg/kg/day divided into 3 or 4 equal doses.
- To avoid throat irritation, Cliofar should be taken with a full glass of water.
Clostridium perfringens Fusobacterium necrophorum Fusobacterium nucleatum Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Prevotella melaninogenica
At least 90% of the microorganisms listed below exhibit in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) less than or equal to the Cliofar susceptible MIC breakpoint for organisms of a similar type to those shown in Table 1. However, the efficacy of Cliofar in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
Since Cliofar does not diffuse adequately into the cerebrospinal fluid, the drug should not be used in the treatment of meningitis.
What should I avoid while using Cliofar?
Do not use Cliofar at the same time as the antibiotic, erythromycin.
Before taking this medicine
You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to Cliofar or lincomycin.
To make sure Cliofar is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
colitis, Crohn's disease, or other intestinal disorder;
eczema, or allergic skin reaction;
asthma or a severe allergic reaction to aspirin;
an allergy to yellow food dye.
Animal studies have not shown any harm during pregnancy, but in humans, it is not known whether Cliofar will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.
Cliofar does pass into breast milk and may cause side effects in the nursing baby. If you are breastfeeding while taking this medicine, call your doctor if your baby has diaper rash, redness or white patches in the mouth or throat, stomach discomfort, or diarrhea that is watery or bloody. Let your doctor know if you are breastfeeding before taking Cliofar.
Cliofar injection may contain an ingredient that can cause serious side effects or death in very young or premature babies. Do not give this medicine to a child without medical advice.
Cliofar is FDA-approved for the treatment of septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, lower respiratory infections, gynecological infections, bone and joint infections, and skin and skin structure infections. Cliofar is also used in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis, acne vulgaris, bacterial vaginosis and severe pelvic inflammatory disease. Although not a first-line treatment, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has published guidelines for using intravenous (IV) Cliofar for the inpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Dentists will use Cliofar for prophylactic coverage against endocarditis. Anesthesiologists and surgeons will often administer Cliofar per American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) and IDSA guidelines as prophylaxis in the operating room.
Additionally, Cliofar can be used to treat babesiosis, anthrax, and malaria. Cliofar is also commonly used in skin and soft tissue infections that are uncomplicated. Cliofar is used in soft tissue infections when due to its efficacy against MRSA. Cliofar is also chosen for outpatient treatment because of its cost, availability, and effectiveness against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.