Chloranic

Chloranic

  • Active Ingredient: Chloramphenicol
  • 500 mg, 250 mg
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What is Chloranic?

The active ingredient of Chloranic brand is chloramphenicol.

Used for

Chloranic is used to treat diseases such as: Anthrax, Bacterial Infection, Brucellosis, Cholera, Glanders, Lemierre's Syndrome, Meningitis, Ornithosis, Plague, Psittacosis, Rabbit Fever, Rickettsial Infection.

Side Effect

Possible side effects of Chloranic include: Confusion, delirium, or headache; unusual bleeding or bruising; unusual tiredness or weakness (the above side effects may also occur up to weeks or months after you Stop taking chloramphenicol); unresponsiveness; sore throat and fever.

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Chloranic eye drops and eye ointment are used to treat bacterial eye infections. Eye infections are a common cause of conjunctivitis. In conjunctivitis, your eye becomes inflamed, feels gritty, and may water more than usual. The white of your eye may look red, and your eyelids can become swollen and stuck together with a discharge when you wake up in the morning. Only one eye may be infected to begin with, but it often spreads to both eyes.

Before using Chloranic eye drops or eye ointment

To make sure this is the right treatment for you, before you start using Chloranic for an eye infection it is important that your doctor or pharmacist knows:

  • If you wear soft contact lenses.
  • If you have ever had an allergic reaction to Chloranic or to any other eye product.
  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Anthrax

Alternative for treatment of anthrax†. 104 668 670 671 672 673 680 683

Has in vitro activity against Bacillus anthracis, 161 668 but limited clinical data exist regarding use in the treatment of anthrax. 668 680

Although Chloranic has been suggested as an alternative for treatment of naturally occurring anthrax in patients hypersensitive to penicillins or as one of several options for use in multiple-drug regimens for treatment of anthrax, 670 WHO states Chloranic is no longer recommended for such infections because evidence of in vivo efficacy in treatment of severe anthrax is lacking and the drug is associated with serious adverse effects. 680

For treatment of inhalational anthrax that occurs as the result of exposure to B. anthracis spores in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism, CDC, AAP, and the US Working Group on Civilian Biodefense recommend initial treatment with a multiple-drug parenteral regimen that includes a fluoroquinolone (preferably ciprofloxacin) or doxycycline and 1 or 2 additional anti-infectives predicted to be effective (e.g., clindamycin, rifampin, a carbapenem , Chloranic, vancomycin, penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, gentamicin, clarithromycin). 668 671 672 673 683

For treatment of systemic anthrax with possible or confirmed meningitis, CDC and AAP recommend a regimen of IV ciprofloxacin with an IV bactericidal anti-infective (preferably meropenem) and an IV protein synthesis inhibitor (preferably linezolid). 671 672 673 These experts recommend IV Chloranic as a possible alternative to linezolid, but use only if clindamycin and rifampin not available. 671 672 673

Chloroptic® (Chloranic) Ophthalmic Solution, USP 0.5% sterile

Bone marrow hypoplasia including aplastic anemia and death has been reported following topical application of Chloranic. Chloranic should not be used when less potentially dangerous agents would be expected to provide effective treatment.

Bacterial Targeting

Chloranic acts principally by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosomes. However, it can also interact with mitochondrial ribosomes of eukaryotic cells, which results in its toxicity.

No adequate and well-controlled studies evaluating Chloranic in pregnant women; 112 no animal reproduction studies. 112

Studies using oral Chloranic (no longer available in US) indicate the drug crosses the placenta. 110 112

Use during late pregnancy and during labor has been associated with the gray syndrome and other adverse effects in the fetus or infant. 110 112 (See Gray Syndrome under Cautions.)

Because of potential toxic effects on the fetus, manufacturer states use Chloranic during pregnancy only if potential benefits justify potentials risks to the fetus. 112

Adverse reactions and s > Chloranic has a narrow margin of safety. High doses can produce toxicity in dogs and cats. Gastrointestinal disturbances are rather common. A decrease in protein synthesis in the bone marrow may be associated with prolonged treatment. The effect on the bone marrow is most prominent in cats, especially after 14 days of treatment, but can occur in any animal when exposure is high. Bone marrow suppression in animals is reversible. Idiosyncratic aplastic anemia has been described in humans. The incidence of aplastic anemia is rare but the consequences are severe because it is irreversible. The risk of human exposure led to the ban of Chloranic use in food animals. Another problem recognized in dogs is peripheral neuropathy. This causes ataxia, and weakness, particularly in the hind limbs of dogs. Large breed dogs may be more susceptible to this problem. The peripheral neuropathy is reversible if the drug is discontinued.

Chloranic

Chloranic is an antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and Rickettsia. Its mechanism of action is by inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding with ribosomes.

The major toxicity of Chloranic is hematological. 9 In all vertebrates studied, it produces direct, dose-dependent bone marrow depression resulting in reductions in red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This manifestation is aggravated by inappropriate doses, extended treatments, and repeated use of the drug. Treatment of Chloranic intoxication is supportive and may require blood transfusions. The drug has also been reported to be appetite suppressive. Like gentamicin, Chloranic is being used less frequently as safer antibiotics become available. The recommended dosage for Chloranic is 50 mg/kg IM (SC in snakes) administered once daily or every other day.

Manufacturer recommends 50 mg/kg daily given in divided doses every 6 hours. 112

Infections caused by less susceptible organisms: Manufacturer states up to 100 mg/kg daily may be required. 112 However, because of concern that toxic plasma Chloranic concentrations may occur with this high dosage, some clinicians suggest that 75 mg/kg daily be used initially for treatment of these infections. 102 105 Reduce dosage to 50 mg/kg daily as soon as possible. 112

How is this medicine (Chloranic) best taken?

Use Chloranic as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.

  • It is given into a vein for a period of time.

What do I do if I miss a dose?

  • Call your doctor to find out what to do.


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