Fluoroquinolones have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions that have occurred together including: tendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system (CNS) effects.
Discontinue the drug immediately and avoid use of systemic fluoroquinolones in patients who experience any of these serious adverse reactions.
May exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis; avoid fluoroquinolones with known history of myasthenia gravis.
Serious adverse effects and limitations-of-use:
- Both oral and injectable fluroquinolones are associated with disabling side effects involving tendons, muscles, joints, nerves and the central nervous system.
- These side effects can occur hours to weeks after exposure to fluoroquinolones and may potentially be permanent.
- Because the risk of these serious side effects generally outweighs the benefits for patients with acute bacterial sinusitis, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infecitons (UTIs), that fluoroquinolones should be reserved for use in patients with these conditions who have no alternative treatment options.
- For some serious bacterial infections, including anthrax, plague, and bacterial pneumonia among others, the benefits of fluoroquinolones outweigh the risks and it is appropriate for them to remain available as a therapeutic option.
This medication contains Biravid. Do not take Floxin if you are allergic to Biravid or any ingredients contained in this drug.
Keep out of reach of children. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately.
• Don't give zinc- or iron-containing drugs within 2 hours of Biravid.
The sections below will provide you with more specific information and guidelines related to Biravid and its correct use. Please read them carefully.
Biravid was initially approved for systemic use by the FDA in December 1990. This medicine is available in oral, parenteral, otic, and ophthalmic forms. The otic formulation was approved in December 17th 1997.
A prescription is required for this medicine.
Please visit the official site of the FDA for further information.
Why is this medication prescribed?
Biravid is in a group of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones, and works by fighting bacteria in the body.
This medicine is used to treat bacterial infections that cause bronchitis, pneumonia, chlamydia, gonorrhea, skin infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the prostate.
Furthermore, the ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye, such as conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. Drug class and mechanism:
Biravid is bactericidal via its effects on DNA gyrase, an enzyme responsible for counteracting the excessive supercoiling of DNA during replication or transcription. Although human cells do not contain DNA gyrase, they do contain a topoisomerase enzyme that functions in the same manner. This mammalian enzyme is not affected by bactericidal concentrations of quinolones. It is unclear how inhibition of DNA gyrase leads to bacterial cell death. Both rapid and slow growing organisms are inhibited by fluoroquinolones. In addition, fluoroquinolones exhibit a prolonged post-antibiotic effect (PAE). Organisms may not resume growth for 2-6 hours after exposure to Biravid, despite undetectable drug levels.
Other uses for this medicine
Biravid (including other fluoroquinolones such as levBiravid) may be used as an alternative treatment to ciprBiravid for anthrax, despite that there is a lack of sufficient data on its efficacy. However, if first-line drugs were not available, these other fluoroquinolones may be effective.
It is important that you talk to your doctor about the possible risks of using this drug for your particular condition.
Dosage and using this medicine
Biravid is available in oral, parenteral, otic, and ophthalmic forms.
Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor.
Take Biravid with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day to prevent crystals from forming in the urine. Take this medicine on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
Take this medicine at evenly spaced intervals, and for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor.
Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. This medicine will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.
To be sure this medication is not causing harmful effects, your blood will need to be tested on a regular basis. Your kidney or liver function may also need to be tested. It is important that you not miss any scheduled visits to your doctor.
This medication can cause you to have unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Biravid.
What special precautions should I follow?
What is the dosage for Biravid?
- The usual dose for patients with normal renal function is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours.
- Dosages require adjustment in patients with severely abnormal liver or kidney function.
- Oflaxacin is available as tablets: 200, 300, and 400mg.
- Biravid should be stored in a closed container at 15 C - 30 C (59 F - 86 F).
• Encourage patient to maintain fluid intake of at least 1,500 ml daily to prevent crystalluria.
• Inform patient being treated for gonorrhea that partners must be treated.
☞ Tell patient to immediately report fever and diarrhea, especially if stool contains blood, pus, mucus. Caution him not to treat diarrhea without consulting prescriber.
☞ Instruct patient to stop taking drug and immediately report rash or tendon pain or inflammation.
• Instruct patient not to take iron- or zinc-containing drugs or antacids within 2 hours of Biravid.
• Teach patient ways to counteract photosensitivity, such as by wearing sunglasses and avoiding excessive exposure to bright light.
• Teach patient how to use eye or ear drops. Caution him not to touch dropper tip to any surface (including eye or ear).
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.
- See "What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Biravid?"