Cycloviran

Cycloviran

  • Active Ingredient: Acyclovir
  • 800 mg, 400 mg, 200 mg
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What is Cycloviran?

The active ingredient of Cycloviran brand is acyclovir. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug. It slows the growth and spread of the herpes virus in the body. Acyclovir will not cure herpes, but it can lessen the symptoms of the infection. The inhibitory activity of acyclovir is highly selective due to its affinity for the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) encoded by HSV and VZV. This viral enzyme converts acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleotide analogue. The monophosphate is further converted into diphosphate by cellular guanylate kinase and into triphosphate by a number of cellular enzymes. In vitro, acyclovir triphosphate stops replication of herpes viral DNA. This is accomplished in 3 ways: 1) competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, 2) incorporation into and termination of the growing viral DNA chain, and 3) inactivation of the viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared with VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the viral TK.

Used for

Cycloviran is used to treat diseases such as: Cold Sores, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Simplex - Congenital, Herpes Simplex Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex, Mucocutaneous/Immunocompetent Host, Herpes Simplex, Mucocutaneous/Immunocompromised Host, Herpes Simplex, Suppression, Herpes Zoster, Infectious Mononucleosis, Mononucleosis, Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, Varicella-Zoster.

Side Effect

Possible side effects of Cycloviran include: Pain, swelling, or redness at place of injection; difficulty in breathing or swallowing; loss of hair; unusual bleeding or bruising; itching or skin rash.

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Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of Cycloviran after oral administration have been evaluated in 6 clinical studies involving 110 adult patients.

Q: Is there an Cycloviran ointment?

A: There is an Cycloviran (Zovirax) ointment formulation, available in 5% strength. Currently, Cycloviran ointment is only available as the brand-name Zovirax Ointment 5%. Cycloviran ointment is indicated for the management of initial genital herpes and in limited non-life threatening mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in immunocompromised patients. Cycloviran ointment is not indicated for the prevention of viral transmission to other individuals. Cycloviran ointment is also not indicated for the prevention of recurrent herpes infections. Cycloviran ointment is a prescription ointment that is applied directly to genital herpes lesions and may lessen the duration of the symptoms associated with an initial outbreak. For the management of genital herpes, patients should be instructed regarding appropriate dosage and administration of Cycloviran ointment. Patients should be advised to apply a sufficient quantity of Cycloviran ointment to adequately cover all lesions and apply every 3 hours, 6 times daily, for 7 days of treatment. The dose size of Cycloviran ointment for each application may vary depending on the size of the lesion area. However, the dose size should be approximately ½ inch ribbon of Cycloviran ointment per 4 square inches of surface area, according to the prescribing information. Patients should be advised to wear a rubber glove or finger cot when applying Cycloviran ointment to the affected area to avoid spreading the virus. Cycloviran ointment should be applied as early as possible after the development of signs and symptoms. During controlled clinical trials, mild pain, including temporary burning and stinging, was reported in approximately 30% of patients with no significant difference between patients receiving Zovirax ointment and patients receiving placebo. Local pruritus was also reported in 4% of patients. Cycloviran ointment 5% should be used exactly as prescribed by a health care provider. Patients should be advised not to exceed the recommended dosage, frequency of applications and length of treatment.

Cycloviran and Pregnancy

If you're a woman, let your doctor know if you are or may be pregnant or if you're breastfeeding.

Researchers have not studied Cycloviran use by pregnant women, so there's not enough evidence to say that it is safe to take during pregnancy.

Cycloviran also may pass into breast milk.

Q: Can you please tell me if there are any long-term side effects to taking 800mg of Cycloviran each day? Can this cause liver, kidney, or heart damage?

A: The most common adverse reactions associated with Cycloviran (//www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/Cycloviran) taken orally include malaise (generalized discomfort), headaches, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Cycloviran used topically has the following as the most common adverse reactions: mild pain, burning or stinging and pruritus (itching). There have been rare (less than 1 percent of studied patients) that have had suspected effects on various organ systems such as liver, kidneys, heart, etc. As always, talk with your health care provider regarding questions you have about side effects of your prescription medications. Jen Marsico, RPh

In general, the pharmacokinetics of Cycloviran in children is similar to adults. Mean half-life after oral doses of 300 and 600 mg/m², in children aged 7 months to 7 years, was 2.6 hours (range 1.59 to 3.74 hours).

Orally administered Cycloviran in children less than 2 years of age has not yet been fully studied.

Is Cycloviran safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?

There are no adequate studies of Cycloviran in pregnant women. In a patient registry of women who used Cycloviran during the first trimester, the rate of birth defects was similar to the rate of birth defects in the general population.

Cycloviran is excreted in breast milk, and a significant amount may be transferred to the infant.

Cycloviran was shown not to impair fertility or reproduction in groups of 15 male and 30 female mice in a two-generation fertility study. The mice in this study were given Cycloviran by gastric intubation at dosage levels of 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg/day. Males were dosed for 64 consecutive days prior to mating and females for 21 days prior to mating.

In a rat fertility study where groups of 20 male and 20 female rats were given 0, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection, Cycloviran was shown not to have an effect on mating or fertility. The males were dosed for 60 days prior to mating and until their mating schedule was completed. Female rats were dosed for 14 days prior to mating and until day 7 of pregnancy. At 50 mg/kg/day s.c. there was a statistically significant increase in post-implantation loss, but no concomitant decrease in litter size.

In 25 female rabbits treated subcutaneously with 50 mg/kg/day Cycloviran on days 6 to 18 of gestation, there was a statistically significant decrease in implantation efficiency but no concomitant decrease in litter size. There was also a dose-related increase in the number of fetuses with supernumerary ribs in all drug-treated groups. This increase was not dose-related when the incidence of supernumerary ribs per litter was examined.

In 15 female rabbits treated intravenously with 50 mg/kg/day Cycloviran on days 6 to 18 of gestation, there was no effect on either implantation efficiency or litter size.

In a rat peri- and postnatal study (20 female rats per group), Cycloviran was given subcutaneously at 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day from 17 days of gestation to 21 days postpartum. At 50 mg/kg/day s.c. there was a statistically significant decrease in the group mean numbers of corpora lutea, total implantation sites and live fetuses in the F1 generation. Although not statistically significant, there was also a dose-related decrease in group mean numbers of live fetuses and implantation sites at 12.5 mg/kg/day and 25 mg/kg/day s.c.

In a dose-range finding study with 5 female rabbits the intravenous administration of Cycloviran at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day from days 6 to 8 of pregnancy, a dose known to cause obstructive nephropathy, caused a significant increase in fetal resorptions and a corresponding decrease in litter size. At a maximum tolerated intravenous dose of 50 mg/kg/day in rabbits there were no drug-related reproductive effects.

In a subchronic toxicity study where groups of 20 male and 20 female rats were given intraperitoneal doses of Cycloviran at 0, 20, 80 or 320 mg/kg/day for one month, and followed for a one-month postdose period, there was testicular atrophy. Some histologic evidence of recovery of sperm production was evident 30 days postdose, but this was insufficient time to demonstrate full reversibility.

Groups of 25 male and 25 female rats were administered intraperitoneal doses of Cycloviran at 0, 5, 20 or 80 mg/kg/day for 6 months. Ten male and 10 female rats in each group were continued undosed for 13 weeks. Testicular atrophy was limited to high-dose rats given 80 mg/kg/day for 6 months. Organ weight data and light microscopy defined full reversibility of the testicular atrophy by the end of the postdose recovery period.

In a 31-day dog study (16 males and 16 females per group) where Cycloviran was administered intravenously at levels of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, testicles were normal in dogs at 50 mg/kg. Doses of 100 or 200 mg/kg/day caused death of some dogs due to cytostatic effects (bone marrow and gastrointestinal epithelium) and aspermic testes or testes with scattered aspermic tubules. It cannot be ruled out that the testicular change may have been primary, however, similar changes can be observed secondary to severe stress in moribund dogs.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The data presented below include references to peak steady-state plasma Cycloviran concentrations observed in humans treated with 800 mg given orally 5 times a day (dosing appropriate for treatment of herpes zoster) or 200 mg given orally 5 times a day (dosing appropriate for treatment of genital herpes). Plasma drug concentrations in animal studies are expressed as multiples of human exposure to Cycloviran at the higher and lower dosing schedules (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics).

Cycloviran was tested in lifetime bioassays in rats and mice at single daily doses of up to 450 mg/kg administered by gavage. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of tumors between treated and control animals, nor did Cycloviran shorten the latency of tumors. Maximum plasma concentrations were 3 to 6 times human levels in the mouse bioassay and 1 to 2 times human levels in the rat bioassay.

Cycloviran was tested in 16 in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity assays. Cycloviran was positive in 5 of the assays.

Cycloviran did not impair fertility or reproduction in mice (450 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or in rats (25 mg/kg/day, s.c.). In the mouse study, plasma levels were 9 to 18 times human levels, while in the rat study, they were 8 to 15 times human levels. At higher doses (50 mg/kg/day, s.c.) in rats and rabbits (11 to 22 and 16 to 31 times human levels, respectively) implantation efficacy, but not litter size, was decreased. In a rat peri- and post-natal study at 50 mg/kg/day, s.c., there was a statistically significant decrease in group mean numbers of corpora lutea, total implantation sites, and live fetuses.

No testicular abnormalities were seen in dogs given 50 mg/kg/day, IV for 1 month (21 to 41 times human levels) or in dogs given 60 mg/kg/day orally for 1 year (6 to 12 times human levels). Testicular atrophy and aspermatogenesis were observed in rats and dogs at higher dose levels.


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